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Operating System

Module 8

QuestionAnswer
Networking Technologies Common types LAN, WLAN, AND WAN
LAN term often used to describe wired local area networks (Ethernet Network)
WLAN describes a wireless LAN (WiFi 802.11)
WAN describes a wide area network, technologies that connect separate LANs
What is a data segment? Data transmitted on a network that has been broken up
Baseband Technologies Ethernet
Broadband Technologies Cable, DSL, Satellite, Fiber-based
Cable uses cable TV infrastructure
DSL uses Public Switch Telenetwork (PSTN) infrastructure
Satellite uses GEO synchronous satellites, connecting devices may be stationary or mobile
Fiber-based uses a fiber-optic network
This company runs fiber all the way to the house or business: Verizon
802.11 Wi-Fi oVarious IEEE standards (802.11b/g/n) oLess secure than wired networks oPublic Wi-Fi access: Hot Spots
The name of the wireless access point is called: Service Set Identifier (SSID)
802.16 Wi-Max oVarious IEEE standards (802.16d/e) oUses base stations (cell towers)
Cellular oVarious Technologies (TDMA, GSM, CDMA, 3G, 4G) oUses base stations (cell towers) oPC accessible with an Internet Card (Air Card)
Bluetooth oShort range technology often used for device to device connections
Dialup Technology •Mature technology that uses PSTN infrastructure, often follows V.92 standard •Maximum theoretical throughput: 56K
Network Adapters (NIC) oOn-board or discrete components (including USB) oIdentified by technology (Ethernet, 100BaseT, etc.)
The NIC number used to identify the adapter on the network is called MAC address
Cables/Connectors (fiber and copper) oVarious cable and connector types oMost common copper-based cabling in use today: UTP oFinished cables types: straight-through (patch cords) and crossover
Devices oHubs – repeat all packets received to all connected nodes oSwitches – direct packets to addressed device oWAP – bridges WLAN to LAN, connects hotspots together
This device manages traffic between two (different) networks: Routers
Windows on a Network •Client/Server Applications •Network communications can be broken into layers •Service Identifications
Client/Server Applications oWeb Browser/Web Server oEmail Client/Exchange Server oFTP Client/FTP Server
Service Identifications oPort/Port Address/Port Number – identifying numbers oSocket Address – combination of IP Address and port number (192.168.0.10:23)
The port number used by SMTP is: 25
IP Addresses Identify the PC (node) on the network
IP Addresses two current versions IPv4 and IPv6
IPv4 32-bits, dotted decimal notation, three classes (A, B & C), uses a subnet mask Example: Class C, ip address:192.168.0.1, subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
IPv6 128-bits, written in hexadecimal, various types, no subnet mask Example: 12:34:56:AB:10::37:55:12:B5:DC:FF:18
IP Address Assignments oPublic and private addresses oDynamically and statically assigned oReserved addresses: broadcasts, loopback, and network identifiers
A computer set to obtain a DHCP address fails to lease an address, what address will it use? Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA)
Hostname/computer name identifies the PC on the network
Domain Name/Workgroup Name identifies the network FQDN: consists of hostname and domain name
DNS resolves the FQDN to an IP Address
TCP/IP oIndividual Protocols working together to mange communication
Application Protocols http, https, smtp, pop, imap, ftp, etc.
Communication Protocols tcp, udp, ip, arp, icmp, igmp, etc
Network Protocols Ethernet, ATM, token ring, etc
Virtual Private Networks (VPN) oMethod of securing data traveling across a public telecommunications network oTechnique is called tunneling; uses encrypted data packets
Which VPN tunneling protocol is considered the weakest? Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
TCP/IP Utilities Command line troubleshooting tools
Tools and Utilities for Troubleshooting Networks ping, ipconfig, telnet, nslookup, tracert, net, netstat
ping connectivity test, uses echo requests, has various switches
ipconfig configuration data, limited control over dynamic data (renew IP address)
telnet remote node communication, unsecure
nslookup provides access to namespace information
tracert hop-by-hop connectivity test, uses echo requests
net several commands in one, all focused on network connections
netstat network activity statistics
Remote Desktop oAccess to another PC across the network oAvailable on certain versions of Windows
Remote Assistance oAccess to another PC across the network oAvailable on certain versions of Windows
What is a technician performing when he enters the command: nslookup 170.10.0.1? Reverse Lookup
Identify the port number used by Remote Desktop. 3389
Hubs repeat all packets received to all connected nodes
Switches direct packets to addressed device
WAP bridges WLAN to LAN, connects hotspots together
Created by: booaphi