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NOS220 Review (Ch7)

Linux Study Guide - Working with the BASH Shell

QuestionAnswer
; A shell metacharacter used to chain multiple commands together for execution.
| A shell metacharacter used to pipe the stdout from one command to the stdin of another command.
< A shell metacharacter used to obtain stdin from a file.
> A shell metacharacter used to redirect stdout and stderr to a file.
alias command A command used to create special variables that are shortcuts to longer command strings.
awk command A filter command used to search for and display text.
counter variable A variable that is altered by loop constructs to ensure that commands are not executed indefinitely.
decision construct A special construct used in a shell script to alter the flow of the program based on the outcome of a command or contents of a variable. Common decision constructs include if, case, &&, and ||.
echo command A command used to display or echo output to the terminal screen. It might utilize escape sequences.
env command A command used to display a list of exported variables present in the current shell, except special variables.
environment files The files used immediately after login to execute commands; they are typically used to load variables into memory.
environment variables The variables that store information commonly accessed by the system or programs executing on the system—together, these variables form the user environment.
escape sequences The character sequences that have special meaning inside the echo command. They are prefixed by the \ character.
export command A command used to send variables to subshells.
file descriptors The numeric labels used to define command input and command output.
filter command A command that can take from stdin and send to stdout. In other words, a filter is a command that can exist in the middle of a pipe.
grep (Global Regular Expression Print) command A program used to search one or more text files for a desired string of characters.
hashpling The first line in a shell script, which defines the shell that will be used to interpret the commands in the script file.
loop construct A special construct used in a shell script to execute commands repetitively. Common loop constructs include for and while.
pipe A string of commands connected by | shell metacharacters.
read command A command used to read stdin from a user into a variable.
redirection The process of changing the default locations of stdin, stdout, and stderr.
sed command A filter command used to search for and manipulate text.
set command A command used to view all variables in the shell, except special variables.
shell scripts The text files that contain a list of commands or constructs for the shell to execute in order.
sort command A command used to sort lines in a file.
standard error (stderr) A file descriptor that represents any error messages generated by a command.
standard input (stdin) A file descriptor that represents information input to a command during execution.
standard output (stdout) A file descriptor that represents the desired output from a command.
subshell A shell started by the current shell.
tee command A command used to take from stdin and send to both stdout and a specified file.
test statement A statement used to test a certain condition and generate a True/False value.
tr command A command used to transform or change characters received from stdin.
user-defined variables The variables that are created by the user and are not used by the system. These variables are typically exported to subshells.
variable An area of memory used to store information. Variables are created from entries in environment files when the shell is first created after login, and are destroyed when the shell is destroyed upon logout.
variable identifier The name of a variable.
Created by: Sumbunny