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NOS220 Review (Ch9)

Linux Study Guide - Managing Linux Processes

QuestionAnswer
/etc/at.allow A file listing all users who can use the at command.
/etc/at.deny A file listing all users who cannot access the at command.
/etc/cron.allow A file listing all users who can use the cron command.
/etc/cron.d A directory that contains additional system cron tables.
/etc/cron.deny A file listing all users who cannot access the cron command.
/etc/crontab The default system cron table.
/var/spool/at A directory that stores the information used to schedule commands using the at daemon.
/var/spool/cron A directory that stores user cron tables.
at command The command used to schedule commands and tasks to run at a preset time in the future.
at daemon (atd) The system daemon that executes tasks at a future time; it is configured with the at command.
background (bg) command The command used to run a foreground process in the background.
background process A process that does not require the BASH shell to wait for its termination. Upon execution, the user receives the BASH shell prompt immediately.
child process A process that was started by another process (parent process).
cron daemon (crond) The system daemon that executes tasks repetitively in the future and that is configured using cron tables.
crontab command The command used to view and edit user cron tables.
cron table A file specifying tasks to be run by the cron daemon; there are user cron tables and system cron tables.
daemon process A system process that is not associated with a terminal.
foreground (fg) command The command used to run a background process in the foreground.
foreground process A process for which the BASH shell that executed it must wait for its termination.
Forking The act of creating a new BASH shell child process from a parent BASH shell process.
jobs command The command used to see the list of background processes running in the current shell.
kill command The command used to kill or terminate a process.
kill signal The type of signal sent to a process by the kill command; different kill signals affect processes in different ways.
killall command The command that kills all instances of a process by command name.
nice command The command used to change the priority of a process as it is started.
nice value The value that indirectly represents the priority of a process; the higher the value, the lower the priority.
parent process A process that has started other processes (child processes).
parent process ID (PPID) The PID of the parent process that created the current process.
process A program currently loaded into physical memory and running on the system.
process ID (PID) A unique identifier assigned to every process as it begins.
process priority A number assigned to a process, used to determine how many time slices on the processor that process will receive; the higher the number, the lower the priority.
process state The current state of the process on the processor; most processes are in the sleeping or running state.
program A structured set of commands stored in an executable file on a filesystem. A program can be executed to create a process.
ps command The command used to obtain information about processes currently running on the system.
pstree command A command that displays processes according to their lineage, starting from the init daemon.
renice command The command used to alter the nice value of a process currently running on the system.
rogue process A process that has become faulty in some way and continues to consume far more system resources than it should.
time slice The amount of time a process is given on a CPU in a multiprocessing operating system.
top command The command used to give real-time information about the most active processes on the system; it can also be used to renice or kill processes.
trapping The process of ignoring a kill signal.
user process A process begun by a user and which runs on a terminal.
zombie process A process that has finished executing, but whose parent has not yet released its PID; the zombie retains a spot in the kernel’s process table.
Created by: Sumbunny