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Herb Category Intros

NESA CHM Comp Exam Single Herbs Review 2011, Bensky Chapter Intro highlights

Most exterior releasing herbs are diaphoretics, this means: they expel pathogens thru sweating
Other than inducing sweating R/E herbs can also: stop cough, wheezing, spasms and vent rashes
Exterior heat signs include: fever, chills, headache, thirst, moderate sweating, floating, rapid pulse
Interior heat signs include: fever without chills, dry mouth, thirst, irritability, scanty and dark urine, yellow tongue coating, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention
Clear heat herbs tend to be _______ in nature Cold
Warmth in the “five centers/hearts/palms” refers to: soles, palms and sternum
What are the 3 categories of downward draining herbs? Purgatives, Moist laxatives, Harsh expellants
What is the primary fxn of downward draining herbs? Stimulate or lubricate the GI tract to facilitate the expulsion of stool
What is the taste and temperature of most Purgatives? Bitter and Cold with strong heat clearing properties
For what condition are most Purgatives used? Constipation due to accumulation of heat
Nuts or seeds commonly make up which category of downward draining herbs? Moist laxatives
Moist laxative tend to be _________ in nature Mild, most suited for debilitated, elderly and those weakened by febrile disease or childbirth
When are Harsh Expellants used? In very severe cases that require inducing pronounced diarrhea
In TCM what are the two meanings of dampness? Accumulation of fluids in the body (edema, pathogenic water) and damp heat (urinary d/o, sores, jaundice)
What is the main action of drain dampness herbs? promote water metabolism and leach out dampness
What is the primary way accumulation of fluids or dampness is relieved? Promoting smooth functioning of waterways leading to increased urination
Biomedically speaking, which category of herbs is considered diuretics? Drain dampness
For what types of cases would drain dampness herbs generally be contraindicated? Yin deficiency
When herbs are selected for painful obstruction what four aspects are considered re. the condition? The nature of the disorder, the site of the pain, the age and constitution of the patient and the stage of the illness
When Wind predominates a Wind Dampness condition how does it manifest? Migratory pain
When Dampness predominates a Wind Dampness condition how does it manifest? Body will feel heavy and laden and joints are often swollen
When Cold predominates a Wind Dampness condition how does it manifest? Intense pain and cold limbs
Why is alcohol used in tinctures beneficial for Wind Dampness? It has a mobilizing action
What is the nature and temperature of most Wind Dampness herbs? Aromatic and warm
Wind Dampness herbs may injure the Blood and Yin and should be used with caution in patients with Blood or Yin deficiency, why? They are drying in nature
According to TCM, what is the definition of phlegm? Pathological accumulation of thickening fluids caused by a disorder of the fluid metabolism or an obstruction to the transportation of fluids
What areas of the body are commonly affected by Phlegm? Respiratory, digestive tracts; channels and collaterals; muscles and fascia
What are the four main causes of Phlegm? Spleen deficiency, pathogenic heat or cold congeals fluids, KD deficiency, LV Qi constraint
Why does one not treat Phlegm directly? One must first treat the Qi, for smooth Qi will lead to smooth and ordered circulation of body fluids
What organ is considered the “receptacle for the storage of Phlegm”? LU
What organ is considered the “source of Phlegm”? SP
Phlegm is considered the mother of 100 diseases, especially its involvement in: seizures, convulsions, scrofula, goiter, back pain, chronic skin problems
Phlegm is considered a secondary pathogen, why? It’s underlying cause must be addressed to provide optimal treatment
Aromatic herbs that transform Dampness are primarily indicated for: Stagnation in the middle burner due to dampness (nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, joint stiffness, diarrhea, vaginal discharge, headache, body aches, AM fatigue)
What is the primary function of Aromatic herbs? Revive the SP with fragrance producing a strong effect in transforming dampness
What are the other common properties of Aromatic herbs? Acrid, Warm, Dry
Aromatic herbs should be used with caution in what condition? Yin deficiency
What is the primary function of Food Stagnation herbs? Reduce, dissolve or guide out Food Stagnation and accumulation through the digestive tract
What are the principal mainifestations of Hot type Food Stagnation? Bad breath, a feeling of distension of the abdomen, preference for cold food and beverages and aversion to hot ones, yellow greasy tongue coating, forceful slippery pulse
What usually causes Hot Food Stagnation? Externally contracted disease or heat from constraint
What usually causes Cold Food Stagnation? Spleen or ST deficiency, or injesting too much Cold food
What are major sx of Cold Food Stagnation? Brackish feeling of the throat, nausea, spitting up clear fluids, feeling of distension in the abdomen, preference for hot foods and beverages and aversion to cold ones, white greasy tc, weak, thin pulse
Most diseases arise from what kind of Qi pathology? Constraint
What are the general characteristics of regulate the Qi herbs? Aromatic, warm, acrid or bitter
What are the general actions of regulate the Qi herbs? Promote movement of Qi, reduce distension, smooth the flow of Qi, expand the chest, relieve constraint, stop pain and direct rebellious Qi downward to stop vomiting or calm wheezing
What is the most important Organ involved in the Qi dynamic? The LU because they govern the Qi, LV because it dredges and drains, the SP governs transformation and transportation and ST which governs receiving and taking in
What are the main types of Qi disharmony? Stagnation and rebellion
Stagnant Qi that affects the organs manifests as pain in what areas? Chest and abdomen
What are the general characteristics of regulate the Qi herbs? Aromatic and dry
What conditions should regulate the Qi herbs be used with caution in? Yin deficiency due to dryness and Qi deficiency due to dispersion which may be too moving
What are the three general categories of Blood Pathology in TCM? Bleeding, Blood Stasis and Blood Deficiency
What does Bleeding refer to in TCM? That blood has left it’s normal passageways
How does Bleeding occur? Leaking out when SP fails to contain Blood; Forced out when propelled by excess Yang; Obstruction of normal passageways by Blood Stasis
There is a rule about Qi and Blood, what is it? Blood follows Qi
What is considered the best safe practice when using Stop Bleeding herbs? Always use them in combination with herbs that treat the underlying condition
What are the general characteristics of Invigorate the Blood herbs? Acrid, Bitter and Warm
What types of patients should you use Invigorate Blood with caution in? Those who are pregnant or who have a tendency to bleed, either constitutionally or due to medications such as blood thinners
Blood stasis is considered a secondary pathogenic influence, how must it be treated? The underlying etiology must be addressed as well
What are the four main categories of Blood Invigorating herbs? Harmonize the blood, promote blood movement, dispel blood stasis, break up blood stasis
What are the general characteristics of Warm Interior herbs? Acrid, Bitter, Warm or Hot
What are the general actions of Warm Interior herbs? Dispel and disperse interior pathogenic Cold and arouse and stimulate the Yang
What conditions are avoided or rarely used with Warm Interior herbs? Heat, Blood loss or Yin deficiency, caution in pregnancy
How does the condition “deficient yet unable to accept tonifcation” manifest? Problems develop after taking tonics e.g., nausea, bloating, loss of appetite, dry mouth, lips, irritability, insomnia
Why does “deficient yet unable to accept tonification” occur? Underlying stagnation which must be dealt with before tonification is successful
What organs are most susceptible to Qi Deficiency? LU and SP
What are the general characteristics of Tonify Qi herbs? Sweet and rich
What three organs are most affected by Blood Deficiency? HT, SP, LV
Herbs that Tonify the Blood tend to be cloying in nature so what kinds of herbs are usually added to formulas? Tonify Qi and strengthen the ST herbs
What Organs are primarily affected by Yang Deficiency? KD, SP, HT
What Organ is considered the seat of primal Yang or basis of all body Yang? KD
What is the important use of Tonify Yang herbs? Tonify KD Yang
What are the three principal classes of Tonify Yang herbs? Potent/expensive (usually animal products like Lu Rong), Commonly used/not too expensive Bu Gu Zhi, Also Tonify Yin like Du Zhong
Most Tonify Yang herbs share which characteristics? Warm and drying
Which conditions should Tonify Yang herbs not be used in? Fire from Yin Deficiency
What organs are prone to Yin Deficiency? LU, ST, LV, KD
What are the general characteristics of Yin Tonifying herbs? Sweet, Cold, Moistening/Enriching/Cloying
What are the primary actions of Tonify Yin herbs? Nourish, enrich and moisten/generate fluids
An old adage says “Sweet and Cold substances Nourish the ____” Yin
Yin Tonifying herbs should be avoided in cases of SP or ST deficiency, internal obstruction of dampness or phlegm, abdominal distention or diarrhea
What is the primary use for Stabilize and Bind herbs? Disorders in which bodily substances discharged abnormally or prolapse
What are the general characteristics of stabilize and bind herbs? Sour, astringent
What are the five treatment groups of Stabilize and Bind herbs? Stop sweat, stop diarrhea, stop urination/discharges, stop coughs
Stabilize and Bind herbs are primarily used to treat the manifestations of a disorder, therefore: they must also be used with herbs that treat the root which is most commonly a deficiency
What organs do Calm the Spirit herbs target? HT and LV
What are the primary uses for Open the Orifice herbs? Open up sensory orifices to awaken the spirit, treat turbid phlegm veiling the sensory orifices
What are hot closed disorders? delirium, irritability, convulsions, e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, severe pneumonia
What are cold closed disorders? ashen/cyanotic face, cold body, foaming at the mouth, coma, cerebrovascular accidents, poisoning
What are the characteristics of Open the Orifice herbs? Scattering, aromatic, acrid
Do Open the Orifice herbs typically treat the root or manifestation of a disease? The manifestation
How long can Open the Orifice herbs be used? Short periods because the scattering nature can drain source Qi
What form are Open the Orifice herbs usually taken in? Pill or powder form
What category of herbs has been found to treat angina pectoris in recent times? Open the Orifice
What pathologies are most responsible for pathogenic interior wind? LV Yang rising, KD Yin deficiency, Blood deficiency
What substances generally comprise Extinguish Wind and Stop Tremors herbs? animal products
Most Extinguish Wind herbs are Cold, but some are also ____ and ____ Warm and drying
How are Expel Parasites usually administered? On an empty stomach to increase their activity
When should Expel Parasite herbs be used with caution? Pregnancy and if fever and severe abdominal pain are also present
What are the different forms used in herbs for Topical Application? Powders, ointments, washes, steams, soaks
Why is there some caution in taking any topical application internally? There are side effects
Created by: kirem