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American Romanticism

QuestionAnswer
5 romantic novelists, 1st famous? 1st novelist? washington irving (1st famous one) james fenimore cooper william cullen bryant edgar allen poe charles brockden brown (1st novelist, but he sucked)
romantic hero qualities? young or has youthful qualities;innocent and pure of purposes;sense of honor that doesn't come from society,but from some higher principle;knowledge of ppl based on deep intuitive understanding, not forma; learning;loves nature;quest for some higher truth
fireside poets wrote poetry that celebrated family and moral character poetry rhymed and had rhythm easy to memorize, read by families by the fire
4 major fireside poets? Henry Wadsworth John Greenleaf Whittier James Russell Lowell Oliver Wendall Holmes last surviving of the group called "last leaf on the tree"
Transcendentalism no universal truths, oversoul, god man and satan are equal,
who came up with trascendentalism? lived it best? coined by? Emerson, thoreau, Kant
transcendentalist writers? Emerson Thoreau Nathaneil Hawthorne Herman Melville Emilt Dickinson Walt Whitman
Irving. Invented comic Narrators-favorite,best known?; Lawyer; England F = Jonathan old style gent;MF=Diedrich knicknerbocker.made a club of it.;his father pushed him to stay in it.;Father sent him to england to settle some business; he couldn't save the family business, but liked it so stayed there for 17 years
Irving. Inspiration. america's first international literary celebrity. THe sketch book. england---sir walter scott; made him internationally famous. This is why he became the 1st successful author; bc of the sketch book
irving. Tales of a traveller; best known for? 2nd book. critics didn't like so he stopped writing; rip van winkle & The Headless Horsemen
Teh devil and Tom Walker. author? mood? archetype? Avarice? Irving; sinister; faust selling h is soul to the devil; greedy people--tom and his wife, reason why they were able to be taken by devil
The devil and tom walker. Parimony; stereotype? irony? nagging, shrewish wife; whenever tom becomes a usurer (loans money with high interest rate)--- called him a "friend in need" but wasn't really a friend bc he wasn't really a friend, he was taking advantage of them.
The devil and tom walker. symbols (3) the big tree with the treasure under. looked like it was flourishing on the outside, but rotting on the core =The greed; Tree on the edge of a swamp = hell. Vulture = death
THe devil and tom walker. satire? archaic idiom? tom realized he was going to hell,started carrying a bible and going to church; (old) one of the man that borrowed from him told him he couldn't pay the high interest rate.- man said if he did he would be poor and have to accept charity;
Thhe devil and tom walker. theme? tone? greed can only lead to your downfall; dark sinister eerie tone;
William cullen bryant. inspiration; prodigy; thanatopsis; book "lyrical ballets" collection of poems by 2 english ppl William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge; started righting poems really young at age 9. wrote TH at 16. published age 19 and well established; ensured his career as a poetdied millionaire
Bryant.; deist/transcendetalist Transcendentalist = god man and mature are all equal, we can become like God ; draw from society and go into nature. Deists = god created the world and left it alone; draw in for from nature Comparison = we can draw inspiration in nature
father of american poetry. why? famous here in america and one of the 1st to be recognized around the whorl. 83 when died
Thanatopsis. author? age composed? imagery? bryant;16; combined discuss one thing---> death his way of looking at death = peacefully 2 greeks word Thanatos (death) and Opsis (sight) and combined them ---> a different way of looking at death
Thanatopsis; personification;metaphor; nature --> listen to her still voice. nature can reflect our mood; we will join with nature. the Earth is a grave or tomb fo rall man kind bc we will all become one.
Thanatopsis; theme? tone? reflects romantism? death is natural and universal; calm, smoothing accepting; all the points of the them (almost)
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; kind of poet? One of america's most famous poets? why? who's the other one? fireside poet- wanted to preserve american values that were disappearing! other one was Robert Frost Longfellow was the first american to have a bust of him in Poets Corner Westminster Abbey; shows he was good bc he was popular here and england
Longfellow; reason for popularity? 2 wives? appealed to ppl who wanted to save family values; 1st wife = both young, got married died in childbirth; 2nd wife = francis appleton. married 18 years. 6 children francis died by burnied kitchen fire The Cross of Snow written by Francis
The tidde rises and the tide falls; author? meter; repitition; personification? longfellow; iambic = unstressed follow by stressed - waves; last line "tide rises, and the tide falls" completes the circle and always happens; rhyme scheme;waves- soft white hands.white crests/ foam; wipes the footprints away--> washing memories
The tide rises and the tide falls. alliteration; rhyme scheme; repetition of consonants --> alliteration of sound in t his poem "t" sound repeat....slows down the rhyme and gives the iambic meter shows repeated cycles of time;aabba;sound effect "Caesura"----pause in a line of poetry to give it a steady beat-waves
the tide rises and the tide falls. theme? imagery? time is circular- nature continues but mans life eventually ends; footprints in the sand reps time
The cross of scnow. author? sonnet? longfellow; Petrarchan, Portuguese, and Shakespearian all of them have 14 lines Petrarchan (italian man named Petrarch): abbaabbacdecde abbaabba = octave = set up situation or ask a question cdecde = sestet = respond to situation or answer question
The cross fo Snow. imagery? symbols (3)? halo, fir, cross; Halo --- she was a good person Fire (martyrs burned at the stake) --- a good person who didn't deserve what had happened to her Cross --- grief and suffering
The cross of Snow. Octave question? sestet response? theme? meter? how he viewed her, a good saintly person;; His response to her death.. wore a cross and was grieving her death;; hard to get over, relies on God to get him through grief;; iambic pentameter - 5 stressed and unstressed syllables
Ralph Waldo Emerson. Essayer/philosopher/poet? philosopher = began transcendentalism --- created this sub-genre he wrote essay and poems He considered himself strictly a poet 2 most famous essays: Nature & slef reliance
Emerson. unitarian pastor? life story? father was unitarian pastor family wanted him to take over his fathers position father died of terburculosis when he was 8 at 14 he went to harvard became a teacher and got married wife died very young and in his grief he lost his faith
Emerson. began in america? oversoul? brought back pals ideas, married again, job lecturing the new ideas he discovered in english, throughout this he created transcendentalism didn't believe in the strict adherence of rules of traditional poetry ;; introduced it. all souls belonged.
Nature-essay. author? bible? imagery? emerson; bible for transcendentalists-nature is something only God can be: perfect;I become a transparent eyeball (everyone can see through him, and he can see everything. all a part of each other-oversoul.)
Nature. theme? ideas on society? would later claim? there is the miraculous even in the common. ideas on society: evil, caused man to conform to an ideal and it wasn't always right for man would later claim: that transcendentalists made the worst citizens--- bc they were all about themselves.
Self-reliance essay. author? motto for transcendentalists? symbols/metaphors(4)? "trust thyself";; planting corn- everyone should work hard. iron string- metaphor for trusting yourself.Joint Stock Company- called society (makes everyone conform) --- he said that bad, we should only trust ourselves shadow on the wall - constancy
self reliance essay. aphorisms(4)? 1st- motto "trust thyself, every heart..." 2 - "whoso would be a man must be a non-conformist"3- "a foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines"4-"to be great is to be misunderstood"
Henry david thoreau. supposedly lived? various jobs? best T life, lived alone, pulled away from society, in nature living in Walen farms;; writer, couldn't hold down a job: teacher for 2 weeks, public lecturer, family owned pencil producing company but never stayed there, proposed but she turned him down
Thorau. jail time? death? didn't pay his pole tax; considered it to be one of the best things he ever did;claimed he would stay there to prove his point, out when someone payed his tax for him. hypocrite; terbuculosis, face calmly, peace with God "i didn't know we ever quarreled"
walden, or lie in the woods. author? located? moved to? supposedly built cabin and..? said he went to? thoreau; walden pond in concord matts; Walden farms, 2 miles outside of town; oberseverd nature to learn about life; "i wish to meet the facts of life"
Walden Farms. "Mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation" --> meaning? Bc they conform to society and they do things that ppl expect of them and not what they want to do means: if i don't like the law, then i don't have to follow it
Wdaen Farms. went to the woods? meaning? "bc i wish to live deliberately";; With purpose "If a man does not keep peace with his companions, perhaps it is bc he hears a different drummer. let him step to the music to which he hears" To him: its what he want, not conforming to society
Walden farms. allusion?left bc?? length of stay? when he called the weeds Trojan Soldiers - referencing to The Iliad left Walden because: wanted to start a new life length of stay: 2 years, 2 months, and 2 days
Resistance to Governmetn. author? paradox? thoreau; in jail he was not confined, body not mind;The best govt. = governs the least; Ppl said they disagreed with slavery, but the ppl they bought their cotton and tobacco products;another man "Honest Prisoner" that said they threw him in for no reason
resistance to govt. Persuasive technique? Civil disobedience? logical - The govt. as a whole can not be as forceful as one man alone Emotional - common experience of paying of taxes;; if i don't want to follow the law, then i don't have to. hoping to accomplish this thought process to other ppl
Resistance to govt. Rhetorical devices? should he have stayed in jail? a statement stands for itself; doesn't need an answer "peculiar institution" were a euphemism(saying it in a nicer way) for slavery also used for the jail;; he believed he was taking a stand, but someone paid his way out, and his point wasn't proven
Nathaniel Hawthorne. transcendentalist? brook farm experiment? Grandfather? Complete rebellion came from strict puritan background, but embarrassed from things in his family's background great grandfather was a salem which judge; BrookFarm Experiment - utopian society (perfect); he tried it but it didn't work out!
Hawthorne. spelling of name? Guilt? Best known novel? added a W;; over his grandfather, showed up in everything he wrote, especially "the scarlet letter";; the scarlet letter
Hawthorne. death? dies of worrying in a hotel room alone
Dr. Heidegger's experiment. author? allegory? Examples? Hawthorne. story read on diff levels; Characters represented moral qualities Mr. Medborne - stood for greed C kiligrew - lust or gluttony Gascoigne - deceit widow wycherly - only women- immorality;; dr. heidegger - father of time
experiment. transcendentalism/gothic? setting/mood and occult? foreshadowing? young glorified; dusty, mirror = should of dead patients, old book; rose withered and butterfly died - they turn old again
experiment. 3 symbols? 55 year old rose- represented his lost love puts in water and renews then dies again - rep returning to old age and death butterfly - it died after drinking the water mirror- widow saw herself as she really was (old) - reps truth
The minister's black veil. author? parable? theme/moral? Hawthorne; short tale that tells story; we should all admiti we are secret sinners, we should be quick to judge others, we shoal learn to acknowledge ors sins but also welcome Gods forgiveness
The ministers black veil. 5 meanings of veil? 1. hoopers own secret sin; 2. sins of his parishioners; 3. hooper and everyone's isolation from god; 4. darkened attitude of world; 5. ppl avoided im, reminded of their own sins.
Veil. 2nd symbol: snatching away of veil? moment of death when external trappings of life are cars aside and one is exposed before God
veil. 3rd symbol? a prison> harboring a sense of guilt entraps and snares us
veil. mood? irony? tragic, sinister, for boding;; authors says "accidental lapse of memory" cause mr saunders to avoid the minister but it was on purpose bc of the veil
veil. allusion? metaphor 1 corinthians 13:12 -- compared to Hooper's message on sin that the ppl did not fully understand;; earth is wearing a balck veil -- liter ally it is night time, metaphorically that world's ppl all have sins to veil
Veil. reaction of ppl? autoiographical? pull away, become separated as our sins separate us from christ;;; H always wore black, would exit back down if someone came to front door
poe's parents? jobs? Elizabeth and David. actress and ballroom dancer.
when did poe's father abandon his family? age? one of __ children? Moms profession? what play was she in? poe's thoughts? 1; 3 children; actress looked down upon; juliet, he watched he stab herself and "come back to life" every night and thought that was real
poe's mom died of __? called what now a days? fascinated with what? consumption; tuberqulosis; dead beautiful women
where did poe live? who adopted him? husband? good ___? Richmond, VA; fracis allen; john allen; education
poe's first love? died? went to what school? money? Jane stanard; brain tumor;; Francis died of consumption; university of VA; no money
Poe racked up into? joined? age 20 move in with? fell in love? age? lied of marriage certificate? gambling; army; aunt; cousin Virgina 13 and 26; said she was 21
Poe's instant success? no? virgina dies of what? how many years? drinking? THE RAVEN. no copywriter; consumption; 5 yrs; drank a lot
Poe could only keep virginia warm how? poem to her when she died? original name? new name? crazy? needed? cat and trench coat; "to virignia" renamed "to annabell lee" went crazy, need a women.
Poe engaged to after Virginia? broke off why? widow came along? going to tell heos aunt but found when? what happened? Helen Whitmen; he wouldn't sign pre-nup it broke off;; Elmira Shelton; found in diff clothes in a drunken coma; kidnapped by political party to vote;
Poe died? last words? charity hospital; coma for 3 days; said "God hope my poor"
Poe's ppl that died from tuberqulosis? mom, francis, brother, wife
The pit and the pendulum. author? setting? mood? POV? poe; spanish inquision, toledo spain, 1808;; horror, death, depressing;;; 1st person, see mind of person tortured
Pit and Pendulum. allusion? Narroators belief of death? Bible - compared is trial to judgement day Greek Mythology - when he fainted the sound became like the rush of souls going into Hates (sentenced to hell); biggest fear = death, fear of unknown.
Pit and pendulum. 7 symbols? Pit - Hell ;Pendulum - time cant be stopped, cant keep yourself from dying;Rats - death;Darkness - fear of the unknown;Pic of Father Time - The grim reaper;Candles/flickering flames - thought angels were coming to save him, meaningless ;Torturers - demons
pit and pendulum. iony? suspense? ending when he gets saved fromo pit. when fainted or drugged
The raven. author? sound effects? symbols? poe. alliteration, rhyme, repetition;; The Raven - Wisdom and death Bust of Palace Athena - Wisdom but makes you question if the raven was a demon or really there to help him
Raven. allusions (5)? Palace Athena - greek goddess of wisdom The Nights Plutonian Shore - hell Nepenthe - greek drug to relieve sorrows and cares Aidenn - reference to Eden Balm of Gilded - healing ointment used in the bible
Raven. rhyme? theme? internal and external;; mourning his wifes death of tuberculosis, mourning coma red to beingtortured.
Eldorado. author? archetypal? meaning of shadow? poe.it is a fabled city of legend. many explorers have died trying to find Eldorado Meaning of shadow: use in all stanza, diff meaning in each 1st - nighttime 2nd - sadness 3rd - ghost 4th - death kept it bc it made it eerie
eldorado. symbols? theme? Knight - begins young and hopeful and bold- youth innocence and adventure Pilgrims Shadow - voice of reason, wisdom, experience ;;;;: don't go chasing after things and dreams that aren't going to come true don't waste your life
eldorado. fits poe? one of the happiest things he wrote but still had the shadow of death
Fall fo the house of usher. author? gothic gnre bc? mood? poe. older meaning: architectural term - churches and decorated with gargoyles and stuff. Now: dark and evil - tarn, out of nowhere, insanity of Usher;; eerie, gloomy
Usher. sound effects. foreshadowing alliteration "dull dark a dn gloomy day" ;; knows it wont be fun bc everything looks eerie - FS that things aren't well inside physician - FS someones sick or dying when he is reading the story to his friend he hears noises - FS that lady's not dead.
usher. symbols? Tarn-deep evil abyss;house=house and ppl intertwined;Paintings-tunnel/vault=like a tomb;Poem-the haunted palace-house devouring driving them crazy;Red Windows=crying eyes;storydragon = destructive force of his mind and the house;World wind=destruction
parallels btw usher and house Dead trees. - the friend (Roderick Usher) looks like pale, white like the trees The house looks creepy and the stone is starting to crack - usher's mind is cracking like the foundations of the house vines growing up the house - like usher's hair
Usher. personification, doubling, summary personification: the house bc its being compared to usher doubling: body twin. Roderick and madeline. 2 halves of one person. they get sick when the other gets sick. doppleganger Summary/interpretation: what insanity look like from the inside.
Olivier Wndell Holmes. decedent? job? poet? Oliver Wendell Holmes Decedent of: ann Bradstreet job as a professor and head of medical field at harvard university Taught: physiology and anatomy Was a fireside poet:
The Cambered Nautilus. author? nautilus? metaphor? water snail; adds new chambers to shell each year ppl used to thing that it was a ship Conceit/extended metaphor: compared it to physical home and spiritual growth of human beings
Nautilus. allusion, metaphor, theme? Trident the god of the sea- message the Nautilus is bringing is louder than Trident's horn Metaphor: prison cell, apartment, tomb. the new chambers Theme: spiritual growth, we ultimately strive for heaven
Created by: Ktfic