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Oceans and Seas chp.

chapter 19

Oceans cover what percent of the earth? 71%
What are the 4 major oceans? Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic
What is a large body of saltwater partially or nearly completely enclosed by land? Sea
What is a submerged edge of a continent extending from the coastline to some distance offshore? Continental Shelf
A continental shelf extends approximately how many miles from the coast? 43
How many feet deep is a cont. shelf? 440 feet
where does a submarine canyon occur? On the ocean floor
What is a sea bottom at the foot of the continental slope? continental rise
A flat, deep sea floor of an ocean basin usually formed by earthquakes and has many volcanoes? Abysal Plain
An abysal plain contains what ridges? ocean-floor
Any submerged mountain like structure on the sea bottom (guyots is a flat topped one) Sea mount
Deep canyon on the sea floor thats usually present where two plates cone together Trench
Coral reefs are made up of what? calcium carbonate
Coral reefs require what to live? light
where is a fringing reef located? along a coastline thats in contact with the shore
where are barrier reefs located? away from the shore
A ring of low coral islands and reef surrounding a central lagoon that is in most cases built on a submerged volcano Atoll
Sea water is a complex solution of water and two other dissolved substances minerals and gases
Sea water is mostly... sodium chloride (salt)
What are 2 ways minerals leave the ocean? living organisms and they are deposited on the sea floor
What is residence time the average time between? A particles entrance into the ocean and its removal
Removes salt from sea water Disolinate
Sea water is pumped at high pressure to allow water molecules to pass through but prevents salt and other particles from crossing over. Reverse osmosis
Tides are caused by what? the moon's gravitational pull
The moon's gravity causes is a... bulge
How many high tides are in 24 hours and 50 minutes? 2
How many low tides are in 24 hours and 50 minutes? 2
What are solar tides? tides caused by the sun's gravity
How are they different from lunar tides? they are smaller
How many times each month are the sun, moon, and earth in a straight line? 2
What is a high tide that occures when the sun, moon, and earth are lined up? spring tide
What is a lower tide that occures when the earth, sun, and moon form a right angle? neap tide
Particles in waves move in what sort of path? circular
What are the five characteristics of waves? crest, trough, wave height, wave length, and wave base
A wave where in the top of the wave falls over on the forward side of the wave. breaker
waves approach the shore how? angle
What pulls water and shore materials back into the ocean? gravity
What is a current that flows parallel to the shore and is caused by waves that approach the shore at an angle? longshore current
rapid currents flowing outward to sea from indentations along a shore on which large waves are breaking rip current
what are rip currents also called? undertow
What is formed by erosion of a cliff face by waves? sea cave
what is a coastal erosional formation resembling a bridge sometimes over a sea cave? sea arch
mass of rock that wave erosion has isolated from the shore stack
narrow sand formation deposited by waves and currents that extends out from a ehadland, often across froma bay or inlet spit
a spit that has a sharp bend hook
spit that extends across the mouthb of a bay closing it to the sea bay barrier
formed when waves deposit sand across the mouth of a bay or along a coastline but has no connection with the mainland barrier island
caused by winds surface currents
what two things affect currents? wind and the coriolis effect
what is the coriolis effect? rotation of the earth
northern hemisphere currents flow... clockwise
southern hemisphere currents flow... counterclockwise
an east flowing current along the equator dividing the northern and southern west flowing currents equitorial
currents affect what? weather
large currents flowing in the depths of the ocean subsurface currents
What current was created by the tendency of denser, more saline water to sink and displace less dense less saline water which rises? density current
fast subsurface current caused byt he weight of large amounts of suspended sediment turbidity current
rising to the surface of cold, nutrient-rich water from the depths of the ocean upwelling
Created by: peep