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Computer Network

Module 7

Broadcast Domain Logically grouped network nodes that can communicate directly via broadcast transmission
Collision Domain The portion of an ethernet network in which collisions could occur if two nodes transmit data at the same time.
Convergence time The time it takes for a router to recognize a best path in the event of a change or network outrage
Exterior Router A router that directs data between nodes outside a given autonomous LAN, for example, routers used on the Internet's backbone.
Gateway (def) A combination of networking hardware and software that connects two dissimilar kinds of networks.
Interior Router A router that directs data between nodes on an autonomous LAN
Modular router A router with multiple slots that can hold different interface cards or other devices so as to provide flexible, customizable network interoperability
VLAN A network within a network that is logically defined by grouping its devices' switch ports in the same broadcast domain
Hardware and Device Interfaces •NIC (network interface card, network adapter) •Rated by topology designed for, network speed and PC Interface
At what layer of the OSI Model do NICs reside? Physical and Data Link
Interfaces may have auto-speed sensing, DMA, diagnostic indicators, SNMP, RAM or Flash ROM
Factors to be considered when choosing a network adapter network technology and host
Software that enables communication between a NIC and the operating system is called Device driver
Connectivity Older devices Repeaters and Bridges
Connectivity Newer devices hubs, switches and routers
Hubs Connectivity device creates one collision domain and one broadcast domain
Hubs (multi-port repeaters) • Receive a signal in one port, regenerate the signal and retransmit it on all the other ports •May or may not have an uplink port
Hubs different configurations o Rack-mounted or desktop designs o Multi-speed sensing abilities o Passive, stackable, or modular, and offer a console port, backbone port, link activity indicators, and collision indicators
Hubs factors to consider when selecting a hub include logical/physical topology, speed, media, performance, cost, scalability, security, management, and reliability
Hubs latency level lowest (process the signals quicker than switches or routers)
Switches Connectivity device creates multiple collision domains and one broadcast domain
Switches different configurations oRack-mounted or desktop designs oMulti-speed sensing abilities oPassive, stackable, or modular, and offer a console port, backbone port, link activity indicators, and collision indicators
Switch factors to consider when selecting a switch include logical/physical topology, speed, media, performance, cost, scalability, security, management, and reliability
Switches (multi-port bridges) •Receive a signal in one port and direct the signal out the destination device port •Reside at the data link layer and interpret MAC addresses •Transparent installation (Minimal administration in most cases)
Two common switch modes Store & Forward mode and Cut-through mode
Identify two advantages of switches over routers. better security and better performance
How can cut-through switches increase errors on a network? Cannot detect corrupt packages
Which switching method (mode) is more appropriate for larger networks? Store and Forward Mode
Routers •Ultimate connectivity device •Connect dissimilar network types, speeds, protocols and topologies •Can be used to segment LAN devices, but major use is WAN connectivity •WAN technologies frequently connect routers
Special Special purpose computer oProcessor, memory, input/output ports, operating system and power supply oFixed or modular configuration oFeature WAN and LAN ports
At what layer of the OSI model are routers found? Network Layer
Internet backbone routers are known as: Exterior Router
Two main router functions: oSelection of best paths for incoming data packets oSwitching packets to the proper outgoing interface
Routers make decisions based on network (logical) addresses
Routing tables are maintained dynamically (by routing protocols)
Routers operate at this latency level highest
What are routing protocols used for? To collect data about current network status and contribute to the selection of the best path
Which routing protocol is used on the Internet backbone? Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Gateways •Connection points between dissimilar network types •It can be hardware based, software based or both •Internet gateways are the most common
What kind of gateway blocks or filters traffic between networks? Firewall
Transceivers o Devices that act as adapters o Commonly have DB-15 connection on one end and desired network connection on the other end. May have diagnostic indicators for performance status or T/S
Equipment racks o Used to mount equipment. May be open or closed and have sophisticated cooling systems or simple fans. Free standing or wall mounted o Range from small 4-inch patch panel units to full height, 84-inch units
Raceways oHold network (and other) media, protect it and create neat/clean media installations oCome in many widths and can be metal or plastic
Patch panels oCentral connection point devices that allows for easy device hookup oModular or fixed, come in many different designs, numbers of ports and standards
Created by: booaphi