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Computer Hardware

Module 7

Extended Capabilities Port (ECP) A bidirectional parallel port mode that uses a DMA channel to speed up data flow.
Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP) A parallel port that shows data to flow in both directions
IEEE 1284 A standard for parallel ports and cables developed by the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers and supported by hardware manufacturers
IEEE 1394 Standards for an expansion bus that can also be configurated to work as a local bus. It is expected to replace the SCSI bus, providing an easy method to install and configure fast I/O devices
Industrial Stnadard Architecture (ISA) an older slot on the motherboard used for slower I/O devices, which can support an 8-bit or a 16=bit data path.
Pixel A small spot on a fine horizontal scan line.
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) A bus common to desktop computers that uses a 32-bit-wide or a 64-bit data path
Resolution The number of pixels on a monitor screen that are addressable by software
Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter (UART) A chip that controls serial ports.
Internal or External Input/Output Devices (AKA Peripherals) oControlled by software (driver, BIOS, application) oConsult the documentation oMay be Energy Star compliant
Nearly all peripherals need driver/BIOS, resources, power, and sometimes an application
The primary Windows tool to manage hardware devices is: Device Manager
PC Connections/Ports Mostly on the rear, becoming popular on the front of the PC
PS/2 Ports Is used for connecting some keyboards and mice to a PC compatible computer system. Its name comes from the IBM Personal System/2 series of personal computers Keyboard (purple) and Mouse (green) 6 pin mini dimm
Serial Port A serial communication physical interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time Dial up Modem RS 232 Port (DB 9 Male)
Parallel Port Sends several data signals simultaneously over several parallel channels (as opposed to the Serial Port) Printer DB25 Female
Video Graphic Array (VGA)Port Monitor DB15 Female
Audio Mini-Jacks Sockets Microphone, Speakers, and Auxilary (Line in)
USB Anything that can be plugged in with a USB Cable
Ethernet Port A registered jack connector and wiring pattern used for connection of a high-speed modem to a telephone network using a keyed 8P8C modular connector RJ45
USB Serial data transfer with two data transfer speeds: USB I – 1.5 or 12Mbps (Original or Basic Speed) USB II – up to 480Mbps (Hi-Speed) USB III – up to 5Gbps (Super-Speed)
USB Ports on the Motherboard oDesigned for slower peripherals and to replace serial/parallel ports oMax number of devices: 127, daisy chained or hub oUses one set of PC system resources, hot pluggable/swappable
USB Managed by othe USB controller (built into the South Bridge or individual chip) oSettings controlled in CMOS Setup/configuration
USB various connectors PC side often called the “A” connector Device side is “B” or “mini-B” connector
USB I and II have four wires in the cable Two wires carry data Two wires carry power (5VDC)
USB II cables can be how long? 5 meters
IEEE 1394 – (fire wire) oShielded – twisted-pair wiring for data and isochronous data transfer oMax number of devices: 63, daisy chained or hub oUses one set of PC system resources, hot pluggable/swappable
IEEE 1394 Serial data transfer – similar to USB – with two data transfer speeds: 1394A – up to 1.2Gbps (Firewire 400) 1394B – up to 3.2Gbps (Firewire 800)
IEEE 1394 various connectors and cable lengths 1394A – 4.5 M 1394B – 100 M
What is isochronous data transfer? Data is transferred continuously without breaks
Serial Ports (RS-232) oTransmit data one bit at a time Serial mice, modems, and other external slow peripherals oConfigured by jumpers (I/O cards) or in CMOS Setup (onboard) oDB-9 port
Serial Ports (RS-232) Also used to configure network connectivity devices Often requires a communication application (HyperTerminal or Putty)
Parallel Ports (IEEE 1284) oTransmit data one byte at a time oMostly used by printers can be used by other peripherals oConfigured by jumpers (I/O cards) or in CMOS (onboard) oDB-25 port on the PC side, 36-pin Centronics connector on the printer side
What are the three categories of parallel ports? Standard Parallel Port (SPP), Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP), and Extended Capabilities Port (ECP)
Standard Parallel Port (SPP) A parallel port that shows data to flow in pne directions
Infrared Transceivers (IrDA) Wireless communication (short range, LOS)
I/O Ports on the Motherboard USB, IEEE 1394, Serial Ports (RS-232), Parallel Ports (IEEE 1284), and Intrared Tranceivers (IrDA)
Display Devices Monitor/Display oVideo Interface/Card Circuitry oDisplay
Display Types CRT, LCD and Projectors
Display LCD types oActive Matrix oDual-scan Passive Matrix oCCFL or LED based
What does refresh rate mean? The number of times one screen or frame is built in one second
Minimum refresh rate set by VESA: 70Hz
What resolution should be used on an LCD for the sharpest image? Bative resolution
Video Cards Interface for the monitor, discrete or integrated
Video Cards Memory May use system memory or have its own memory (VRAM, SGRAM, or WRAM)
Frame buffer video memory that holds one screen of data
Video Cards Types AGP and PCI Express
AGP designed for video data transfer, more like a port than a bus •32 bits wide and synchronous with system bus •Different Versions: AGP 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X and Pro •Old technology
PCI Express (PCI Express x16) About twice as fast as AGP x8, replacing AGP as the standard
What are the five types of video ports? 15 Pin VGA Port, Digital Visual Interface (DVI), Composite out port, S-Video port, and HDMI port
Keyboards oConnect using different methods: P/S 2, USB & Wireless oStandard Keyboards often managed by System BIOS
Pointing Device oConnect using different methods: Serial, P/S 2, USB, & Wireless
Touch Screen oOften connects using USB or serial port oUsually requires calibration to LCD resolution
Barcode Reader oVarious devices oUses several types of interfaces
Fingerprint Reader (biometric device) oStandalone and integrated devices oUses several types of interfaces oRequires occasional cleaning
KVM Switch oEnables multiple PCs to use a common set of I/O devices
The two methods of switching between computers with a KVM switch is: Using a hot key on the keyboard or buttons on the top of the KVM switch
Device Manager oEnable, disable or uninstall devices and update or rollback drivers oResolve conflicts oHardcopy report of system configuration
When installing hardware devices in Windows XP the user must be logged in as an administrator. Why is that not required in Vista? Because of the User Account Control (UAC) box. You can enter the
Using Ports on the Motherboard •Various ports, many can be disabled/enabled in CMOS/BIOS Setup •Generally, devices controlled in CMOS Setup are also found in Device Manager
A technician is troubleshooting a suspected onboard port problem. She has checked CMOS/BIOS Setup and discovered Device Manager reports no problem with the port. What is the next thing to do? Uninstall and reinstall the drivers that came with the device
Created by: booaphi