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QuestionAnswer
Antiseptic Substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.
ARTERIOLE Smallest branch of an artery.
BOWMAN'S CAPSULE Cup-shaped end of a renal tubule containing a glomerulus;also called GLOMERULAR CAPSULE.
CORTEX Outer layer of a body organ or structure.
CYSTOSCOPE Instrument used to view the anterior of the bladder. It consists of an outer sheath with a lighting system,a scope for viewing and a passage for catheters and devices used in surgical procedures;may also be referred to as a "CYSTO".
DIALYSATE Solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood;also called a "BATH".
DIALYSIS Process of removing waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so.
DWELL TIME Lengthof time the dialysis solution stays in the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis.
Fossa Hollow or depression, especially on the surface of the end of a bone. In kidney transplantation the donor kidney is surgically placed in the Iliac fossa of the recipient.
Glomerular Filtrate Substances that filter out of the blood through the thin walls of the glomeruli(water,sugar,salts,and nitrogenous waste products such as urea,creatinine,and uric acid).
GLOMERULUS Ball-shaped collection of very tiny coiled and interwined capillaries,located in the cortex of the kidney.
Hilum Depression,or pit, of an organ where the vessels and nerves enter.
Meatus Opening or tunnel through any part of the body,as in the urinary meatus,which is the external opening of the urethra.
MEDULLA Most internal part of a structure or organ.
Micturition Act of eliminating urine from the bladder;also called VOIDING or URINATION.
NEPHROLITH Kidney stone;also called a RENAL CALCULUS.
Peritoneum Specific serous membrane that contains the entire abdominalwall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera; the inner lining of the abdominal cavity.
PERITONITIS Inflammation of the peritoneum (membrane linning abdominal cavity).
Pyelitis Inflammation of the renal pelvis.
Renal Pelvis Central collecting part of the kidney that narrows into the large upper end of the ureter. It receives urine through the calyces and drains it into the ureters.
RESIDUAL URINE Urine that remains in the bladder after urination.
Toxic Poisonous
TURBID Cloudy.
UREMIA Presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood; also called AZOTEMIA.
Ureter One of a pair of tubes that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
Urethra Small tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
URINARY INCONTINENCE Inability to control urination;the inability to retain urine in the bladder.
Urine Fluid released by the kidneys,transported by the urters,retained in the bladder, and eliminated through the urethra. Normal urine is clear,straw colored, and slightly acid.
Hemodialysis Passing the blood through the artificial kidney for filtering out impuritites.
Peritonealdialysis Introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter. through the process of osmosis,this fluid draws waste products out of the capillaries into the abdominal cavity. It is then removed from the abdomen via a catheter.
Albuminuria Presence in the urine of abnormally large quantities of protein,usually albumin. ( Albuminuria is the same thing as proteinuria.)
Anuria Cessation (stopping) of urine production, or a urinary output of less than 100 ml per day.
Bacteriuria Presence of bacteria in the urine.
Dysuria Painful urination.
Fatigue State of exhaustion or loss of strength or endurance,such as may follow strenuous physical activity.
Frequency Number of repetitions of any phenomenon within a fixed period of time such as the # of hertbeats per minute; in the case of urinary frequency, urination at short intervals without increase in the daily volume of urinary output due to reduced bladder capa
Glycosuria Abnormal presence of sugar, especially glucose, in the urine.
Hematuria Abnormal presence of blood in the urine.
Ketonuria Presence of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine.
Malaise Vague feeling of bodily weakness or discomfort, often marking the onset of disease or infection.
Nocturia Urination, especially excessive, at night; may be a symptom of renal disease.
Oliguria Secretion of a diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake; scanty urine output.
Polydipsia Excessive thirst.
Polyuria Excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine.
Pyuria Presence of an excessive number of white blood cells in the urine, usually a sign of an infection of the urinary tract; pus in the urine.
Urgency Feeling of the need to void urine immediately.
Cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Glomerulonephritis (acute) Inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidneys.
Hydronephrosis Distension of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past obstruction in a ureter.
Polycystic Kidney Disease Hereditary disorder of the kidneys in which grapelike fluid-like sacs or cysts replace normal kidney tissue.
Pyelonephritis (acute) Bacterial infection of the renal pelvis of the kidney.
Renal Faliure (chronic) Progressively slow development of kidney failure occurring over a period of years. The late of chronic renal faliure are known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Vesicoureteral Reflux Abnormal backflow (reflux) of urine from the bladder to the ureter.
Catheterization Introduction of a catheter (flexible hollow tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or to remove a fluid.
Cystoetrography Examination performed to evaluate bladder tone; measuring bladder pressure during filling and voiding.
Cystoscopy Process of viewing the interior of the bladder using a cystoscope.
Intravenous Pyelogram Also known as intravenous pyelography or excretory urogram. This radiographic procedure provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys,ureters,bladder, and urethra.
KUB (kidneys,ureters,bladder) X-ray of the lower abdomen that defines the size, shape, and location of the kidneys,ureters, and bladder. A contrast medium is not used with this X-ray.
Retrograde Pyelogram (RP) Radiographic procedure in which small-caliber catheters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to visualize the ureters and the renal pelvis.
Urinalysis Physical, Chemical, or microscopic examination of urine.
24-hour Urine Specimen Collection of all the urine excreted by the individual over a 24-hour period. The urine is collected in one large container. This urine specimen is also called COMPOSITE URINE SPECIMEN.
Voiding Cystourethrography X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with contrast material.
Clean-catch Specimen (midstream specimen) Collection is used to avoid contamination of the urine specimen from the microorganisms normally present on the external genitalia.
First-voided specimen (early-morning specimen) Patient is instructed to collect the first-voided specimen of the morning and to refrigerate it until it can be taken to the medical office or laboratory.
Random Specimen Urine specimen that is collected at any time.
Peritoneal Dialysis The peritoneal membrane (also called the peritoneum) is used as the filter in the peritoneal dialysis instead of using the hemodialysis machine as a filter.
Erythropoietin (EPO) Hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells within the bone marrow, produced by the kidneys.
Created by: Jayson R. Hoss