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A&P 2 - E3 - P2

A&P 2 - Exam 3 - Part 2 - Digestive Physiology

The primary function of the digestive system is to bring essential nutrients into the _________ environment of the body so that they are available to each cell of the body. internal
Food being taken in is known as _______. ingestion
_________ is the breakdown of complex nutrients into simple nutrients. digestion
The _________ of the GI wall is the physical break down of large chunks of food material and movement of food along the tract. motility
The secretion of digestive ________ allows chemical digestion. enzymes
________ is the movement of nutrients through the GI mucosa into the internal environment. absorption
Absorption is the movement of nutrients through the GI ________ into the internal environment. mucosa
_________ is the excretion of material that is not absorbed. elimination
__________ digestion is made up of the movements of the digestive tract. mechanical
Digestion changes ingested food from _______ particles into _______ particles, facilitating _______ digestion. large, minute, chemical
Digestion churns the contents of the GI ________ to mix with digestive juices and come in contact with the surface of the intestinal _________, facilitating __________. lumen, mucosa, absorption
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is also known as the ___________. alimentary tract
Chewing is also known as _________. mastication
Mastication mixes food with ________ in preparation for swallowing. saliva
________ is the process of swallowing which is a complex process requiring coordinated and rapid movements. deglutition
The ________ stage of deglutition takes place from the mouth to the oropharynx. oral
What is a formation of food during the oral stage of digestion? bolus
What are the 3 stages of deglutition? oral, pharyngeal, esophageal
The ________ stage of deglutition takes place from the oropharynx to the esophagus. pharyngeal
The ________ stage of deglutition takes place from the esophagus to the stomach. esophageal
A combination of _________ and ________ move bolus into the esophagus and then to the stomach. contractions, gravity
Both the pharygeal and esophageal stages of deglutition involve __________ movement. involuntary
______ and _______ are the 2 main types of motility produced by the smooth muscle of the GI tract. peristalsis, segmentation
______ and _______, types of motility, can occur together or in alternating fashion. peristalsis, segmentation
peristalsis and segmentation are the 2 main types of motility produced by the _________ of the GI tract. smooth muscle
_________ is a wavelike ripple of the muscle layer of a hollow organ. peristalsis
_________ is a progressive motility that produces forward movement of matter along the GI tract. peristalsis
_________ is a mixing movement. segmentation
During _________ digestive reflexes cause a forward and backward movement with a single segment of the GI tract. segmentation
What type of motility helps break down food particles, mixes food and digestive juices, and brings digested food in contact with intestinal mucosa to facilitate absorption? segmentation
________ motility empties the stomach which takes approximately _______. gastric, 2 to 6 hours
During gastric motility, food is churned and mixed with gastric juices to form ________. chyme
Chyme is ejected about every ______ into the ______. 20 seconds, duodenum
Gastric emptying is controlled by ________ and ________ mechanisms. hormonal, nervous
_________, a hormone, acts to decrease peristalsis of gastric muscle slows the passage of chyme into the duodenum. gastric inhibitory peptide
_______ in the duodenum stimulate the release of gastric inhibitory peptide. fats
Gastric inhibitory peptide acts to decrease ________ of gastric muscle slows the passage of _____ into the duodenum. peristalsis, chyme
The __________ reflex occurs because receptors in the duodenal mucosa are sensitive to the presence of acid and distention. enterogastric
The enterogastric reflex occurs because receptors in the duodenal mucosa are sensitive to the presence of _____ and ______. acid, distention
During the enterogastric reflex, impulses over sensory and motor fibers in the ______ cause a reflex ______ of gastric peristalsis. vagus nerve, inhibition
Intestinal motility includes ______ and _______. peristalsis, segmentation
Segmentation in duodenum and upper jejunum mixes chyme with digestive juices from the _______, _______, and ______ mucosa pancreas, liver, intestinal
The rate of peristalsis picks up as chyme approaches the end of the _______, moving it through the rest of the small intestine into the large intestine. jejunum
Chyme normally takes approximately _______ to pass through the small intestine. 5 hours
Intestinal peristalsis is regulated in part by intrinsic _______ reflexes which are stimulated by _________ stretch, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK)
CCK is short for ______. cholecystokinin-pancreozymin
There are changes in the chemical composition of food as it travels through the digestive tract, these changes are a result of ________. hydrolysis
Digestive enzymes are extracellular, organic (protein) _________. catalysts
Digestive enzymes are _________, organic (protein) catalysts. extracellular
Principles of enzyme action: ________ in their action specific
Principles of enzyme action: Functionally optimal at a specific ____. pH
Principles of enzyme action: Enzymes are continually being destroyed or eliminated from the body and must continually be ________. synthesized
Principles of enzyme action: digestive enzymes are synthesized as inactive ________. proenzymes
Carbohydrates are ______ compounds. saccharide
Polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by ________ to form disaccharides. amylases
Polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by amylases to form ________. disaccharides
The final steps of carbohydrate digestion are catalyzed by _______, ______, and _______, which are found in the cell membrane of epithelial cells covering the villi that line the intestinal lumen. sucrase, lactase, maltase
The final steps of carbohydrate digestion are catalyzed by sucrase, lactase, and maltase which are found in the cell membrane of ______ cells covering the ______ that line the intestinal lumen. epithelial, villi
Protein compounds are made up of twisted chains of ________. amino acids
__________ catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins into intermediate compounds and, finally, into amino acids proteases
What are the 3 main proteases in protein digestion? pepsin, trypsin, peptidases
What is the protease in gastric juice? pepsin
What is the protease in pancreatic juice? trypsin
What is the protease in intestinal brush border? peptidases
Fats must be emulsified by _____ in small intestine before being digested. bile
Pancreatic _______ is the main fat-digesting enzyme. lipase
Some compounds of food resist ________ and are eliminated as feces. digestion
Saliva is secreted by ________ glands. salivary
_______ lubricates food and, with water, facilitates mixing. mucus
_______ is an enzyme that begins the digestion of starches. amylase
_______ increases pH for optimum amylase function. sodium bicarbonate
Gastric juice is secreted by ______ glands. gastric
Pepsin, which is a protease that begin the digestion of proteins, is secreted as inactive _______ by _______ cells. pepsinogen, chief
Hydrochloric acid, which is secreted by _______ cells, decreases the pH of chyme for activation and optimum function of _______. parietal, pepsin
Intrinsic factor, which is secreted by _______ cells, protects vitamin ____ and later facilitates its absorption. parietal, B12
Mucus and water lubricates, protects, and facilitates mixing of _______. chyme
Pancreatic juice is secreted by _______ and ______ cells of the pancreas. acinar, duct
Proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin are enzymes that digest ________ and ________. proteins, polypeptides
Lipases are enzymes that digest emulsified _________. fats
________ are enzymes that digest nucleic acids such as _____ and _____. nucleases, DNA, RNA
Amylase is an enzyme that digests __________. starches
Sodium bicarbonate increases _____ for optimum enzyme function; its manufacture also helps restore normal _______ of blood. pH, pH
Bile is secreted by the ________ and is stored and concentrated in the ________. liver, gallbladder
________ and _______ emulsify fats by encasing them in shells to form tiny spheres called ________. lecithin, bile salts, micelles
_______, products of detoxification, and bile pigments such as _______ are waste products excreted by the liver and eventually eliminated in the feces. cholesterol, bilirubin
Intestinal juice is secreted by intestinal _______ cells. exocrine
______ and _______ lubricate and aid in the continued mixing of chyme. mucus, water
Only ______ mechanisms control the secretion of saliva. reflex
_______ and ______ stimuli come from the presence of food in the mouth. chemical, mechanical
_______ and ______ stimuli come from the smell and sight of food. olfactory, visual
What are the 3 phases of gastric secretion? cephalic, gastric, intestinal
The _________ phase of digestive secretion is known as the "psychic phase," since mental factors activate the mechanism. cephalic
During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion, ________ fibers in branches of the vagus nerve conduct stimulating efferent impulses to the glands which stimulates the production of _______. parasympathetic, gastrin
The _______ phase of gastric secretion occurs when products of protein digestion reach the _____ portion of the stomach. gastric, pyloric
During the gastric phase of gastric secretion, gastrin accelerates secretion of gastric juice, ensuring enough ________ are present to digest food. enzymes
During the _______ phase of gastric secretion, various mechanisms seem to adjust gastric secretion as chyme passes to and through the intestinal tract. intestinal
During the intestinal phase of gastric secretion, endocrine reflexes involving gastric ______, _______, and _______ inhibit gastric secretions. inhibitory peptide, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin
Pancreatic secretion is stimulated by several hormones released by intestinal _________. mucosa
________ evokes production of pancreatic fluid low in _______ content but high in ________. secretin, enzyme, sodium bicarbonate
Cholecystokinin-pancreozymin has several functions in ________ secretion. pancreatic
A function of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in pancreatic secretion is that it causes increased exocrine secretion from the _________. pancreas
A function of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in pancreatic secretion is that it opposes _______, thus inhibiting gastric ______ secretion. gastrin, HCL
A function of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in pancreatic secretion is that it stimulates contraction of the ________ so that ________ is ejected into the duodenum. gallbladder, bile
A function of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in pancreatic secretion is that it causes bile to be continually secreted by the ________. liver
A function of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in pancreatic secretion is that it stimulates intestinal _______ to release hormones that increase the production of intestinal juice. mucosa
The process of absorption consists of the passage of substances through the _______ into the _______ or ________. intestinal mucosa, blood, lymph
Most absorption occurs in the __________. small intestine
For some substances such as water, absorption occurs by simple _______ or _______. diffusion, osmosis
Sodium is absorbed (transported) through _______. active transport
Glucose is absorbed (coupled transport) through _______. sodium cotransport
Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and cholesterol are transported with the aid of _________ from the lumen to absorbing cells of the _______. bile salts, villi
After food is absorbed, it travels to the ________ via the _______. liver, portal system
The act of expelling feces is called __________. defecation
Defecation occurs as a result of a reflex brought about by stimulation of receptors in the ________ that is produced when the rectum is __________. rectal mucosa, distended
________ occurs when the contents of the lower colon and rectum move at a slower than normal rate. constipation
During constipation, extra water is absorbed from the feces, resulting in ________. hardened stool
________ is the result of increased motility of the small intestine, causing decreased absorption of water and electrolytes and a ________. diarrhea, watery stool
The primary contribution of the digestive system to ________ is to provide a constant nutrient concentration in the internal environment. homeostasis
The teeth and tongue, along with the respiratory system and the nervous system are important in producing ________. spoken language
Gastric acids aid the ________ system by destroying potentially harmful bacteria. immune
Regulation of digestive motility and secretion requires the ________ system and ________ system. nervous, endocrine
Oxygen for digestive activity needs the proper functioning of _______ and ______ systems. respiratory, circulatory
________ and _______ systems support and protect the digestive organs. integumentary, skeletal
The ________ system is needed for ingestion, mastication, deglutition, and defecation to occur normally. muscular
Stomach and intestinal inflammation is known as ________. gastroenteritis
Vomiting is also known as ________. emesis
Inflammation of the large intestine is known as _______. colitis
Bulging sacs or pouches of the inner lining of the intestine (diverticulosis) that become inflamed or infected is known as ________. diverticulitis
Scarring of the liver is known as __________. cirrhosis
Created by: K1N1V

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