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SB82 VascularSurgery

SB82 Vascular Surgery from Fiser's ABSITE review

Most common congenital hypercoagulable disorder ___________ Factor V Leiden
Problem seen in Factor V Leiden is resistance to ____________ Activated Protein C
Most common acquired hypercoagulability disorder ____________ Smoking
The first stage of atherosclerosis involves these cells ___________ Foam cells
What are foam cells? Macrophages that have absorbed fat and lipids in the vesel wall
Describe the second stage of atherosclerosis. Smooth muscle cell proliferation; caused be GFs released from foam cells; causes vessel wall injury
What is the third stage of atherosclerosis?___________ Intimal disruption
What is the pathophysiology of the third stage of atherosclerosis? Smooth muscle cell proliferation causes exposure of collagen in vessel wall, which leads to eventual thrombus formation with fibrous plaques overlying atheromas
Third most common cause of death in the US is due to _______________ Stroke
Most important risk factor for stroke in asymptomatic patients _________ Hypertension
Carotid arteries supply _____________% of the blood flow to the brain Eighty-five
The most common site of carotid stenosis is at the ______________ Bifurcation
Describe the flow in the ECA vs. the ICA. ECA has triphasic flow; ICA has continuous forward flow.
First branch of the external carotid artery: _______________ Superior Thyroid Artery
First branch of the internal carotid artery: _______________ Ophthalmic Artery
Communication between the ICA and the ECA occurs through these 2 vessels. Ophthalmic artery (off ICA) and internal maxillary artery (off ECA)
Most commonly diseased intracranial artery ________________ MCA
Most common cause of cerebral ischemic events ____________ arterial embolization from ICA
Occlusion of ophthalmic branch of ICA causing transient visual changes is called _____________ Amaurosis fugax
Carotid endarterectomy should be considered in patients with > _________ % stenosis and _________ Seventy, symptoms
When should you place a shunt during carotid endarterecomy? hen stump pressures are below 50
If a patient has bilateral carotid stenosis, which side should you repair first? _________ The tighter side
The cranial nerve most commonly injured in CEA is the ____________ nerve Vagus
Patient has difficuly swallowing following CEA. Which nerve was likely injured? ____________ Glossopharyngeal
This nerve may be injured during CEA and cause paralysis of strap muscles. ________ Ansa Cervicalis
Post-CEA patients may develop hypertension 20% of the time due to injury of ___________ Carotid Body
Most common non-stroke morbidity and mortality following CEA ____________ Myocardial Infarction
The restenosis rate following CEA is _____% Fifteen
Criterion 1 for carotid stenting rather than CEA is age greater than ______ years old Eighty
Criterion 2 for carotid stenting rather than CEA is ______ CAD
Criterion 3 for carotid stenting rather than CEA is acute MI in past _______ weeks or CABG in prior ______ months four, six
Criterion 4 for carotid stenting rather than CEA is _______________ CHF
Criterion 5 for carotid stenting rather than CEA is ___________ Dialysis-dependent renal failure
Criterion 6 for carotid stenting rather than CEA is ___________ Severe COPD
Symptomatic vertebral disease usually occurs at this location _______________ Bilaterally at origins
Symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency Diplopia, dysarthria, vertigo, tinnitus, drop attacks, incoordination, binocular vision loss
Painless neck mass near bifurcation of carotids ______ Carotid body tumor
Carotid body tumors are composed of this cell type _________ Neural crest cells
Treatment of carotid body tumors ________ Resection
Thoracic aortic transection is usually caused by _________________ injury Deceleration
Thoracic aorta transection usually tears at the location of the _______ Ligamentum arteriosum
This percentage of patients with thoracic aorta transection die at the scene ______ Ninety
Mediastinal widening may occur after thoracic aorta transection due to ___________ injury rather than leaking directly from the aorta Bridging vessels
Created by: StudyBug82
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