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Operating Systems

Module 3

Widely used Open-Source Code OS •Software distributed with the source code and not simply the object code •Anyone can examine, modify, recompile, and execute the software
Open Source Code Movement •Strong belief in free software •Richard Stallman •Linus Torvalds
Richard Stallman oCreated the GNU OS oFounded the Free Software Foundation
Linus Torvalds oWrote a UNIX clone program modeled after another program called Minix oCompleted the first version of the Linux Kernel (1991) oHuge success – power of UNIX on an inexpensive desktop computer
Linux Pros •Linux is free and portable to any hardware platform •Linux runs without restarting for long periods •Linux is secure and versatile •Linux is scalable •Linux has very short debug-times
Linux Cons •Linux was not very user friendly and confusing for beginners
Versions of Linux are sometimes called: Distributions
Linux Distributions •Most distributions can operate as a client or server •Linux is popular in the server market (web servers, file servers, PBX, security, etc.) •Must adhere to GPL guidelines
Linux OS distributed by a commercial or non-commercial organization such as: oDebian (completely supported by a “community”) oFedora Core (Red Hat Enterprise) oSuSE Linux (Novell) oUbunto (Fairly recent entry – based on Debian)
The organization may enhance the basic functions (or kernel) of the operating system oPre-configured to specifications set by the organization oConfiguration utilities and installers oCommon Software Included
License/Copyright Issues •Most distributions are copyrighted under the terms of the GPL •Source code must be freely distributable (Anyone is allowed to make copies) •Not all software developed or ported to Linux is open source
Strong Popularity •Community support infrastructure •SAMBA project (file and print-serving on PC-related machines) •Apache (HTTP server project) •Availability Common Applications
System Features •Minimum system requirements are lower than equivalent Windows OS •Supports multi-user and multitasking capability •Pioneered the use of virtual memory •Operates in Protected Mode
System Features Account Types - Root system administrator - also called super user or su
System Features Account Types - User system users
What does it mean to have Root privileges in Linux? Administrative access; Ability to access all the functions of the OS
The administrator account on a Microsoft PC has a username of Administrator. What is the username of a Linux PC Administrator? Root
Networking oAdvanced and superior to most other Operating Systems Internet communication (TCP/IP suite) was developed on Unix systems Unix systems incorporated TCP/IP as default protocols oSupports common Internet protocols
Interfaces oX Windows with Graphical Desktop Environment (GDE) oCommand Line
Interfaces Three access methods: Text Mode Boot, Terminal Window, Console
Two kinds of partitions on a Linux system: oData Partition (Often more than one) oSwap partition oVery flexible partitioning is available
Data Partition (Often more than one) Normal system data containing all the data to startup and run the system Includes the root partition (indicated with a forward slash, /)
Data Partition contains: •System configuration files •Most basic commands •System libraries •Temporary space •Home directory of the administrative user
Swap partition  Accessible by the system only  Normally hidden  Typically twice the amount of physical memory
File structure Filenames are case sensitive Filenames can be up to 256 characters and contain many special characters File extensions have no significance in Linux
Command Line Interface (BASH shell - default shell) •Bash (Bourne Again Shell) is a GNU product •CLI is controlled by the Shell •Three access methods •Two Command (or Shell) Prompts
CLI is controlled by the Shell oThe Shell is the command interpreter oThe Command interpreter translates keyboard input into commands oShell’s purpose is to run programs or work with files
Three access methods oText Mode Boot oTerminal Window oConsole
•Two Command (or Shell) Prompts oUser($) oroot(#)
Superuser (su) ask you for a passowrd to get admin priviledge
What is the difference between the user and root command prompts? root command prompt is # and other users have the $ command prompt
Manual (MAN)Pages Access help with the ls command by entering "man ls"
Command history arrow keys
Command completion tab key
Command break ctrl-c, Quit (q), or esc
What does the forward slash indicate? The root directory
Identifying File Types •Most Linux versions has ls aliased to color-ls by default •Standard scheme is located in /etc/DIR_COLORS
Identifying file type colors - Blue directories
Identifying file type colors - Red compressed archives
Identifying file type colors - White text files
Identifying file type colors - Pink images
Identifying file type colors - Cyan links
Identifying file type colors - Yellow devices
Identifying file type colors - Green executables
Identifying file type colors - Flashing red broken links
Which directory stores commands required for System administration? /sbin
Which Linux commands are case sensitive? All commands
Focusing the Prompt Two commands: ols (list) similar to the dir command in Windows ocd (change directory) same as Windows
Character in the first position indicates file type - Hypen indicates that this a file
Character in the first position indicates file type - Asterisk indicates executable files
Character in the first position indicates file type - Directories are marked with a d
Character in the first position indicates file type - Links start with l
Character in the first position indicates file type - Special files start with c
Character in the first position indicates file type - Sockets start with s
Character in the first position indicates file type - Named pipes start with p
Character in the first position indicates file type - Block devices start with b
What command will display all TCP/IP configuration data? ifconfig
What is the default shell for Linux? Bash
What are the two popular Linux GUIs? Gnome and KDE
X Windows with Graphical Desktop Environment (GDE) •Access to the applications and system settings in a GUI environment
Both GUIs have window managers KDE – Conqueror, GNOME – Nautilus
Created by: booaphi