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Operating Systems

Module 1

Administrator Account
Device Driver
File Extension
Initialization Files
Notification Area / Systray / System Tray
Patches / Service Packs
Standard Account
Application software Entertainment(Games), Productivity(Microsoft), or Utility
Device Drivers/Firmware (system BIOS) software that operates devices
Operating System software that controls the computer o Manages hardware, runs applications, user interface, and file management
Two major categories 32-bit and 64-bit
Found in many devices: Embedded (smart phones, automotive, etc.) Network Computers/Devices and Personal Computers Virtual Machines
Operating System Updated with Service Packs: major changes Patches: minor changes
Microsoft Operating Systems User Interface •Command Line Interface •GUI Interface
Command Line Interface DOS (Disk Operating System)
GUI Interface Windows 1-3, 9X/NT Series, ME/2000, XP, Vista/Windows 7
What are the two main versions of Windows XP? Home Edition and Professional
Apple Operating Systems Macintosh – UNIX based OS
Linux Operating Systems (Distributions) •Similar to UNIX, popular as a server platform, less popular as a desktop OS •Interaction with the OS is more common through CLI oGUI environment is based on X-Window using GNOME or KDE
Identify the three main internal OS components. The Shell, Kernel, and Configuration Data
Four Common Operating System Functions and Components 1.Responsible for the direct control and management of hardware 2.Provide a User Interface (Shell, GUI/CLI) 3.Management of files and directories 4.Management of applications
Responsible for the direct control and management of hardware o Memory Management (RAM, static and dynamic) o Processor control o Peripheral device control o Management and control of basic system operations  Recognizing keyboard/mouse input and sending output to the display
Identify two places where Windows stores configuration information. Registry and Text file called initialization file
Small programs stored on a hard drive that tell a PC how to communicate with a specific device are called: Device driver
Programs on the left side of the Vista Start menu are user-oriented. What are entries on the right-side? Gives access to user files and OS utilities
What is a Service? A program that runs in the background to support or serve windows or an application
Windows Vista/7 Desktop •Start Button/Start Menu •Sidebar and Gadgets •Taskbar/Notification Area (System Tray) – displays some of the running services •User Account Control (UAC)
The two types of Vista user accounts are: Administrator and Standard
Data organization method Physical drives/partitions/logical drives/directories/subdirectories/files
User Files and Folders oWindows XP Location:%SystemDrive%\Documents and Settings\ oWindows Vista Location:%SystemDrive%\Users
Given the following info: (C:\Windows\system32\config\software.LOG) identify the: Path: Filename: File Extension: Path: C:\Windows\system32\config Filename: software File Extension: .LOG
Small utility programs in the Control Panel are called: Applets
Control Panel Control over hardware, software, users and minor system settings
Control Panel Access with: Start -> Control Panel
System Properties •Control and view over system information and major settings •Device control and basic system information
System Properties Access with: Right click computer properties
System Information Utility Detailed system information
System Information Utility Access with: msinfo32.exe
Command Prompt •CLI Emulator •Allows multiple commands to be entered and run
Command Prompt offers two levels of access: Standard and Elevated
What is the default path of an elevated command prompt window? c:windows\system32\msinfo32
Command Line Interface oFolder/directory structure (Folder = Directory) oFilename structure, including extensions oCommands, Command Syntax
Microsoft CLI All Windows versions have a command line interface
How the command line interface must be opened before it can be used? Click Start, enter cmd in the run or search field
How to close the CLI? Enter exit on the command line interface or click on the close button
Entering Commands •Text commands are entered with the keyboard (99% are not case sensitive) •Computer is ready for a command when displaying a prompt •Prompt appears after the last command was executed (and PC is awaiting further instructions)
Typical (root) prompts include: A: B: C: D: E: H: etc.
Windows creates two names for every file it saves: DOS filename and the Windows filename
Windows Filenames and File Formats oThe DOS filename follows “8.3” with longer names being truncated oWindows filenames can be up to 255 characters long oCertain characters cannot be used: / \ : * ? “ < > | oWindows associates the file extension with the required program
Focusing the CLI Pointing the command line interface to the specific file or folder desired by the user
Many times the starting point (prompt) will be C:\ oTo change drives enter the prompt (drive letter and the colon) oNarrow the focus to the folder or file of interest
•Focus Commands include the (drive) prompt, dir short for directory
•Focus Commands include the (drive) prompt, cd means change the directory (enter a folder name after the cd command)
•Focus Commands include the (drive) prompt, cd windows takes the user down a level to a directory named windows
•Focus Commands include the (drive) prompt, cd.. takes the user up one level in the directory structure
•Focus Commands include the (drive) prompt, cd\ takes the user directly to the root of the drive
• Wildcards may assist the user in a search for a particular file or a particular type of file oThe * is wild for any number of characters, the ? is wild for one character
Command Syntax (term used to describe a complete command) •First, the basic command is typed followed by the target (if applicable) of the command •Then modifications to the command are added before entering the whole command •The modifications to the command are called switches
Switches •Switches are numbers or letters that add functionality to the basic command •Switches are indicated by the forward slash / or the hyphen -
File Attributes •All files have four special values associated with them called attributes •Attributes control how the file will behave in certain circumstances •Attributes can be changed with the attrib command •The command usually has three parts
Hidden (h) File Attributes Allows a file to not be viewable when running the dir command
Read Only (r) File Attributes Protects a file from being overwritten or changed
System (s) File Attributes Marks a file as belonging to the system
Archive (a) File Attributes Used to identify files that have changed since the last file backup.
The command usually has three parts oAttrib command oAdding or removing an attribute oFilename to perform the change on
attrib attribute of a file
batch calls or names a batch file
cd/chdir Used to Change directory
chkdsk Performs a disk check (scan disk)
cls Clear the screen
copy Copy files from one location to another
del/delete Used to delete one file
dir Display files and subdirectories
diskpart disk partitioning utility
edit Starts a text editor program
expand Expands a compressed file
format formats a partition
help provides command help
md/mkdir Creates a new directory
path Provides the OS with a list of paths to executable files
prompt sets a new prompt
rd/rmdir Deletes an empty directory
ren/rename Used to rename a file
set displays, sets command variables
type Displays the contents of a text file
copy Copies files and directory trees
Batch Files/Scripts •Allow users to create a list of commands to run in sequence •Does not require any special programming skills •Adds functionality to CLI by allowing additional commands •May be created with a text editor (Notepad) and saved with a .bat file extension
Created by: booaphi