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NOS220 Review 1-14b

Linux Study Guide - Alphabetical

QuestionAnswer
GNU An acronym that stands for “GNU’s not UNIX.”
GNU C Compiler (gcc) command The command used to compile source code written in the C programming language into binary programs.
GNU General Public License (GPL) A software license ensuring that the source code for any OSS will remain freely available to anyone who wants to examine, build on, or improve upon it.
GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) An open source graphics manipulation program that uses the GTK+ toolkit.
GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME) One of the two competing graphical user interface (GUI) environments for Linux.
GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME) The default desktop environment in Fedora Linux; it was created in 1997.
GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) An open source asymmetric encryption technology that is primarily used by e-mail programs.
GNU Project A free operating system project started by Richard Stallman.
GNU zip (gzip) command A command used to compress files using a Lempel-Ziv compression algorithm.
gpg command A command used to create and manage GPG keys.
GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) A common boot loader used on Linux systems.
GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) A common boot loader used in Linux.
graphical user interface (GUI) The component of an operating system that provides a user-friendly interface comprising graphics or icons to represent desired tasks. Users can point and click to execute a command rather than having to know and use proper command-line syntax.
grep (Global Regular Expression Print) command A program used to search one or more text files for a desired string of characters.
grep command A Linux command that searches files for patterns of characters using regular expression metacharacters. The command name is short for “global regular expression print.”
Group When used in the mode of a certain file or directory, the collection of users who have ownership of that file or directory.
Group Identifier (GID) A unique number given to each group.
groupadd command The command used to add a group to the system.
groupdel command The command used to delete a group from the system.
groupmod command The command used to modify the name or GID of a group on the system.
groups command The command that lists group membership for a user.
GRUB root partition The partition containing the second stage of the GRUB boot loader and the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
grub-install command The command used to install the GRUB boot loader.
grub-md5-crypt command The command used to generate an encrypted password for use in the /etc/grub/grub.conf file.
GTK+ toolkit A development toolkit for C programming; it is used in the GNOME desktop and the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP).
GUI environment A GUI core component such as X Windows, combined with a window manager and desktop environment that provides the look and feel of the GUI; though functionality may be similar, users may prefer one environment to another due to ease of use.
GUID Partition Table (GPT) The area of a large hard disk (> 2TB) outside a partition that stores partition information and boot loaders.
gunzip command The command used to decompress files compressed by the gzip command.
Hacker A person who explores computer science to gain knowledge. It should not be confused with the term cracker.
hard disk quotas The limits on the number of files, or total storage space on a hard disk drive, available to a user.
hard limit A hard disk quota that the user cannot exceed.
hard link A file joined to other files on the same filesystem that shares the same inode.
Hardware The tangible parts of a computer, such as the network boards, video card, hard disk drives, printers, and keyboards.
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) A list of hardware components that have been tested and deemed compatible with a given operating system.
hardware platform A particular configuration and grouping of computer hardware, normally centered on and determined by processor type and architecture.
hardware RAID A RAID system controlled by hardware located on a disk controller card within the computer.
hashpling The first line in a shell script, which defines the shell that will be used to interpret the commands in the script file.
head command A Linux command that displays the first set of lines of a text file; by default, the head command displays the first 10 lines.
home directory A directory on the filesystem set aside for users to store personal files and information.
host ID The portion of an IP address that denotes the host.
host name A user-friendly name assigned to a computer.
hostname command A command used to display and change the host name of a computer.
hot fix A solution made by a closed source vendor that fixes a software bug.
HOWTO A task-specific instruction guide to performing any of a wide variety of tasks; freely available from the Linux Documentation Project at http//tldp.org/.
HP-UX A version of UNIX developed by Hewlett-Packard.
hwclock command A command that can be used to view and modify the system clock within the computer BIOS.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The protocol used to transfer information over the Internet.
id command The command that lists UIDs for a user and the GIDs for the groups that the same user belongs to.
ifconfig command A command used to display and modify the TCP/IP configuration information for a network interface.
incremental backup An archive of a filesystem that contains only files that were modified since the last archive was created.
info pages A set of local, easy-to-read command syntax documentation available by typing the info command.
infrastructure services Network services that provide network and operating system-specific functionality to other computers on the network.
init command The command used to change the OS from one runlevel to another.
initialize (init) daemon The first process started by the Linux kernel; it is responsible for starting and stopping other daemons.
Initstate See runlevel.
Inode The portion of a file that stores information on the file’s attributes, access permissions, location, ownership, and file type.
inode table The collection of inodes for all files and directories on a filesystem.
insert mode One of the two modes in vi; it allows the user to insert text into the document but does not allow any other functionality.
insmod command A command used to insert a module into the Linux kernel.
installation log files The files created at installation to record actions that occurred or failed during the installation process.
Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment.
interactive mode The mode that file management commands use when a file can be overwritten; the system interacts with a user, asking the user to confirm the action.
Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6) A protocol used by computers to obtain an IPv6 configuration from a router on the network.
Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) A printing protocol that can be used to send print jobs across a TCP/IP network, such as the Internet, using HTTP or HTTPS.
Internet Protocol (IP) address A unique string of numbers assigned to a computer to uniquely identify it on the Internet.
Internet Protocol (IP) address A series of four 8-bit numbers that represents a computer on a network.
Internet SCSI (iSCSI) A SCSI technology that transfers data via TCP/IP networks.
Internet service provider (ISP) A company that provides Internet access.
Internet Super Daemon (xinetd) A network daemon that is used to start other network daemons on demand.
Intrusion Detection System (IDS) A program that can be used to detect unauthorized access to a Linux system.
iostat (input/output statistics) command A command that displays input/output statistics for block devices.
ip command A command that can be used to manipulate the route table.
IP forwarding The act of forwarding TCP/IP packets from one network to another. See also Routing.
IP version 4 (IPv4) The most common version of IP used on the Internet. It uses a 32-bit addressing scheme organized into different classes.
IP version 6 (IPv6) A recent version of IP that is used by some hosts on the Internet. It uses a 128-bit addressing scheme.
iptables command The command used to configure a firewall in Fedora Linux.
iSCSI initiator The software and hardware components that can be used to transfer files to and from an iSCSI target.
iSCSI target An external iSCSI storage device that hosts one or more hard disks.
ISO image A file that contains an ISO filesystem.
ISO images Files that contain an ISO 9660 filesystem within.
iterative query A DNS resolution request that was resolved without the use of top-level DNS servers.
jabbering The process by which failing hardware components send large amounts of information to the CPU.
jitter The difference between time measurements from several different NTP servers.
jobs command The command used to see the list of background processes running in the current shell.
journaling A filesystem function that keeps a journal of the information that needs to be written to the hard disk; common Linux journaling filesystems include ext3, ext4, and REISER.
K desktop environment (KDE) One of the two competing graphical user interfaces (GUI) available for Linux
K Desktop Environment (KDE) A desktop environment created by Matthias Ettrich in 1996.
K Window Manager (kwin) The window manager that works under the KDE Desktop Environment.
KDE Display Manager (kdm) A graphical login screen for users that resembles the KDE desktop.
Kernel The central, core program of the operating system. The shared commonality of the kernel is what defines Linux; the differing OSS applications that can interact with the common kernel are what differentiate Linux distributions.
key A unique piece of information that is used within an encryption algorithm.
Kickstart Configurator A graphical utility that can be used to create a kickstart file.
kickstart file A file that can be specified at the beginning of a Fedora Linux installation to automate the installation process.
kill command The command used to kill or terminate a process.
kill signal The type of signal sent to a process by the kill command; different kill signals affect processes in different ways.
killall command The command that kills all instances of a process by command name.
Knoppix Linux A CD/DVD-based Linux distribution.
KPackageKit utility A program that can be used to install, update, and remove RPM packages within a desktop environment.
ldconfig command The command that updates the /etc/ld.so.conf and /etc/ld.so.cache files.
ldd command The command used to display the shared libraries used by a certain program.
less command A Linux command used to display a text file page-by-page on the terminal screen; users can then use the cursor keys to navigate the file.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) A protocol that is used by services to query directory databases for purposes of authentication.
lilo command The command used to reinstall the LILO boot loader based on the configuration information in /etc/lilo.conf.
Line Printer Daemon (LPD) A printing system typically used on legacy Linux computers.
link local The portion of an IPv6 address that refers to a unique computer. It is analogous to the host portion of an IPv4 address.
linked file The files that represent the same data as other files.
Linus Torvalds A Finnish graduate student who coded and created the first version of Linux and subsequently distributed it under the GNU Public License.
Linux A software operating system originated by Linus Torvalds. The common core, or kernel, continues to evolve and be revised. Differing OSS bundled with the Linux kernel is what defines the wide variety of distributions now available.
Linux Documentation Project (LDP) A large collection of Linux resources, information, and help files supplied free of charge and maintained by the Linux community.
Linux Loader (LILO) A common boot loader used on Linux systems.
Linux User Group (LUG) An open forum of Linux users who discuss and assist each other in using and modifying the Linux operating system and the OSS run on it. There are LUGs worldwide.
ll command An alias for the ls –l command; it gives a long file listing.
ln (link)command The command used to create hard and symbolic links.
local area networks (LANs) The networks in which the computers are all in close physical proximity.
locate command The command used to locate files from a file database.
lock an account To make an account temporarily unusable by altering the password information for it stored on the system.
log file A file that contains past system events.
log file A file containing information about the Linux system.
logger command A command that can be used to write system log events via the System Log Daemon (rsyslogd).
logical drives The smaller partitions contained within an extended partition on a hard disk.
Logical Unit Number (LUN) A unique identifier for each device attached to any given node in a SCSI chain.
logical volume (LV) A volume that is managed by the LVM and composed of free space within a VG.
Logical Volume Manager (LVM) A set of services that is used to manage logical volumes stored on one or more hard disks.
Logical Volume Manager (LVM) A set of software components within Linux that can be used to manage the storage of information across several different hard disks on a Linux system.
logrotate command The command used to rotate log files; it typically uses the configuration information stored in /etc/logrotate.conf.
loop construct A special construct used in a shell script to execute commands repetitively. Common loop constructs include for and while.
lp command The command used to create print jobs in the print queue in the CUPS printing system.
lpadmin command The command used to perform printer administration in the CUPS printing system.
lpc command The command used to view the status of and control printers in the LPD printing system.
lpq command The command used to view the contents of print queues in the LPD printing system.
lpr command The command used to create print jobs in the print queue in the LPD printing system.
lprm command The command used to remove print jobs from the print queue in the LPD printing system.
lpstat command The command used to view the contents of print queues and printer information in the CUPS printing system.
ls command A Linux command used to list the files in a given directory.
lsmod command A command used to list the modules that are currently used by the Linux kernel.
lsof (list open files) command The command that lists the files that are currently being viewed or modified by software programs and users.
lspci command The command that lists the hardware devices that are currently attached to the PCI bus on the system.
lsusb command The command that lists the USB devices that are currently plugged into the system.
lvcreate command A command used to create LVM logical volumes.
lvdisplay command A command used to view LVM logical volumes.
lvextend command A command used to add additional space from volume groups to existing LVM logical volumes.
lvscan command A command used to view LVM logical volumes.
mail command A common e-mail client on UNIX, Linux, and Macintosh systems.
mail delivery agent (MDA) The service that downloads e-mail from a mail transfer agent.
mail transfer agent (MTA) An e-mail server.
mail user agent (MUA) A program that allows e-mail to be read by a user.
major number The number preceding the first dot in the number used to identify a Linux kernel version. It is used to denote a major change or modification.
major number The number used by the kernel to identify which device driver to call to interact properly with a given category of hardware; hard disk drives, CD-ROMs, and video cards are all categories of hardware; similar devices share a common major number.
man pages See manual pages.
manual pages The most common set of local command syntax documentation, available by typing the man command. Also known as man pages.
Master Boot Record (MBR) The area of a typical hard disk (< 2TB) outside a partition that stores partition information and boot loaders.
master DNS server The DNS server that contains a read/write copy of the zone. See also primary DNS server.
media access method A system that defines how computers on a network share access to the physical medium.
memtest86 A common RAM-checking utility.
metacharacters The key combinations that have special meaning in the Linux operating system.
Metacity Window Manager The default window manager for the GNOME Desktop Environment in Fedora 13.
MINIX Mini-UNIX created by Andrew Tannenbaum; Using the publicly available kernel code as a starting point, Linus Torvalds improved this version of UNIX for the Intel platform and created the first version of Linux.
minor number The number following the first dot in the number used to identify a Linux kernel version, denoting a minor modification. If odd, it is a version under development and not yet fully tested. See also developmental kernel and production kernel.
minor number The number used by the kernel to identify which specific hardware device, within a given category, to use a driver to communicate with; see also major number.
mkdir (make directory) command The command used to create directories.
mkfs (make filesystem) command A command used to format or create filesystems.
mkisofs command A command used to create an ISO image from one or more files on the filesystem.
mknod command A command used to re-create a device file, provided the major number, minor number, and type (character or block) are known.
mkswap command A command used to prepare newly created swap partitions for use by the Linux system.
Mode The part of the inode that stores information on access permissions.
modprobe command A command used to insert a module into the Linux kernel.
monitoring The process by which system areas are observed for problems or irregularities.
more command A Linux command used to display a text file page-by-page and line-by-line on the terminal screen.
mount command A command used to mount filesystems on devices to mount point directories.
mount point The directory in a file structure to which something is mounted.
mounting A process used to associate a device with a directory in the logical directory tree such that users can store data on that device.
mouse-test command A command used to detect and configure your mouse.
mpstat (multiple processor statistics) command A command that displays CPU statistics.
Multicast The TCP/IP communication destined for a certain group of computers.
multihomed hosts The computers that have more than one network interface.
Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (MULTICS) A prototype time-sharing operating system that was developed in the late-1960s by AT&T Bell Laboratories.
Multitasking A type of operating system that has the capability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously.
Multiuser A type of operating system that has the capability to provide access to multiple users simultaneously.
multiuser mode Also called runlevel 2; the mode that provides most daemons and a partial set of networking daemons.
mv (move) command The command used to move/rename files and directories.
named pipe file A temporary connection that sends information from one command or process in memory to another; it can also be represented by a file on the filesystem.
nano editor A user-friendly terminal text editor that uses Ctrl key combinations to perform basic functions.
NetBIOS A protocol used by Windows computers that adds a unique 15-character name to file- and printer-sharing traffic.
netfilter/iptables The Linux kernel components and related software subsystem that provide firewall and NAT capability on modern Linux systems.
Network Two or more computers joined together via network media and able to exchange information.
Network Address Translation (NAT) A technology used on routers that allows computers on a network to obtain Internet resources via a single network interface on the router itself.
Network Configuration tool A graphical utility in Fedora Linux that can be used to configure network settings for the NICs on the system.
Network File System (NFS) A distributed filesystem developed by Sun Microsystems that allows computers of differing types to access files shared on the network.
Network File System (NFS) A set of software components that can be used to share files natively between UNIX, Linux, and Macintosh computers on a network.
network ID The portion of an IP address that denotes the network.
Network Information Service (NIS) A set of services that is used to standardize the configuration and centralize the authentication of UNIX and Linux-based systems across a network.
Network Information Service (NIS) A set of software components that can be used to standardize the configuration files across several different Linux and UNIX computers.
Network Manager A daemon that allows multiple network interfaces to be easily configured by users on the system.
network service A process that responds to network requests.
Network Time Protocol (NTP) A protocol that is used to synchronize the time on a computer from across a network such as the Internet.
Network Time Protocol (NTP) A protocol that can be used to obtain time information from other computers on the Internet.
newaliases command A command that can be used to rebuild the e-mail alias database based on the entries within the /etc/aliases file.
newgrp command The command used to change temporarily the primary group of a user.
Newsgroup An Internet protocol service accessed via an application program called a newsreader, this service allows access to postings via e-mails in a central place accessible by all newsgroup users, is normally organized along specific themes.
nice command The command used to change the priority of a process as it is started.
nice value The value that indirectly represents the priority of a process; the higher the value, the lower the priority.
NIS client A computer in an NIS domain that receives its configuration from an NIS master server or NIS slave server.
NIS domain A group of computers that share the same NIS configuration.
NIS map A system configuration that is shared by the computers within an NIS domain.
NIS master server The computer in an NIS domain that contains the master copy of all NIS maps.
NIS slave server A computer in an NIS domain that receives a read-only copy of all NIS maps from an NIS master server.
nmap (network mapper) command A command that can be used to scan ports on network computers.
nmblookup command A command that can test NetBIOS name resolution on a Linux system.
nohup command A command that prevents other commands from exiting when the parent process is killed.
ntpdate command A command that can view the current system time as well as synchronize the system time with an NTP server.
ntpq command A command that can query the state of an NTP server or client.
Ntsysv A utility that can be used to alter the daemons that are started in each runlevel.
Octet A portion of an IP address that represents eight binary bits.
od command A Linux command used to display the contents of a file in octal format.
offset The difference in time between two computers that use the NTP protocol.
Open Source Software (OSS) The programs distributed and licensed so that the source code making up the program is freely available to anyone who wants to examine, utilize, or improve upon it.
operating system (OS) The software used to control and directly interact with the computer hardware components.
options The specific letters that start with a dash “-” or two and appear after the command name to alter the way the command works.
Orca A Linux software program that provides several assistive technologies to desktop environment users.
Other When used in the mode of a certain file or directory, it refers to all users on the Linux system.
Overclocked Term used to describe a CPU that runs faster than the clock speed for which it has been rated.
Owner The user whose name appears in a long listing of a file or directory and who has the ability to change permissions on that file or directory.
package dependencies A list of packages that are prerequisite to the current package being installed on the system.
package manager The software used to install, maintain, and remove other software programs by storing all relevant software information in a central software database on the computer.
package manager A system that defines a standard package format and can be used to install, query, and remove packages.
packets The packages of data formatted by a network protocol.
Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) A legacy hard disk technology that uses ribbon cables to typically attach up to four hard disk devices to a single computer.
Parallel SCSI The traditional SCSI technology that transfers data across parallel cables.
parent directory The directory that is one level closer to the root directory in the directory tree relative to your current directory.
parent process A process that has started other processes (child processes).
parent process ID (PPID) The PID of the parent process that created the current process.
partition A physical division of a hard disk drive.
partitions A small section of an entire hard disk created to make the hard disk easier to use. Partitions can be primary or extended.
passwd command The command used to modify the password associated with a user account.
PATH variable A variable that stores a list of directories that will be searched in order when commands are executed without an absolute or relative pathname.
Permissions A list that identifies who can access a file or folder and their level of access.
physical extent (PE) size The block size used by the LVM when storing data on a volume group.
physical volume (PV) A hard disk partition that is used by the LVM.
ping (Packet Internet Groper) command A command used to check TCP/IP connectivity on a network.
pipe A string of commands connected by | shell metacharacters.
Plug and Play (PnP) A technology that allows users to add hardware to a computer without having to configure the hardware to work with the system.
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) The component that handles authentication requests by daemons on a Linux system.
port A number that uniquely identifies a network service.
Postfix A common e-mail server daemon used on Linux systems that is easy to configure.
PostgreSQL A common SQL server used on Linux computers.
PostgreSQL utility The program used to perform most database management on a PostgreSQL server.
power on-self test (POST) An initial series of tests run when a computer is powered on to ensure that hardware components are functional.
primary DNS server The DNS server that contains a read/write copy of the zone.
primary group The default group to which a user belongs.
primary group The group that is specified for a user in the /etc/passwd file and that is specified as group owner for all files created by a user.
primary partitions The separate divisions into which a hard disk can be divided (up to four are allowed per hard disk).
print job The information sent to a printer for printing.
print job ID A unique numeric identifier used to mark and distinguish each print job.
print queue A directory on the filesystem that holds print jobs that are waiting to be printed.
printer class A template that can be used to apply settings to printers on a CUPS system.
Created by: Sumbunny