Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

NOS220 Review 1-14a

Linux Study Guide - Alphabetical

QuestionAnswer
AIX A version of UNIX developed by IBM.
*sum commands Commands that can be used to verify the checksum on a file where * represents the checksum algorithm. For example, to verify a SHA-1 checksum, you could use the sha1sum command.
.dmrc (display manager runtime configuration) file A file that is stored within each user’s home directory to list the preferred desktop environment for use by the GNOME Display Manager.
.xinitrc (X initialization runtime configuration) file A file that is stored within each user’s home directory to list the preferred desktop environment for use by the startx command.
/bin directory The directory that contains binary commands for use by all users.
/boot The directory that contains the kernel and boot-related files.
/boot directory The directory that contains the Linux kernel and files used by the boot loader data block.
/boot/grub/grub.conf The GRUB configuration file.
/dev directory The directory that contains device files.
/dev directory The directory off the root where device files are typically stored.
/dev/MAKEDEV command The command used to re-create a device file if one or more of the following pieces of device information is unknown major number, minor number, or type (character or block).
/etc directory The directory that contains system-specific configuration files.
/etc/at.allow A file listing all users who can use the at command.
/etc/at.deny A file listing all users who cannot access the at command.
/etc/cron.allow A file listing all users who can use the cron command.
/etc/cron.d A directory that contains additional system cron tables.
/etc/cron.deny A file listing all users who cannot access the cron command.
/etc/crontab The default system cron table.
/etc/cups/cupsd.conf A file that holds daemon configuration for the cups daemon.
/etc/cups/printers.conf A file that holds printer configuration for the cups daemon.
/etc/default/useradd A file that contains default values for user creation.
/etc/dumpdates The file used to store information about incremental and full backups for use by the dump/restore utility.
/etc/fstab A file used to specify which filesystems to mount automatically at boot time and queried by the mount command if an insufficient number of arguments are specified.
/etc/group The file that contains group definitions and memberships.
/etc/inittab The configuration file for the init daemon that specifies the default runlevel.
/etc/ld.so.cache The file that contains the location of shared library files.
/etc/ld.so.conf The file that contains a list of directories that contain shared libraries.
/etc/lilo.conf The LILO configuration file.
/etc/login.defs A file that contains default values for user creation.
/etc/logrotate.conf The file used by the logrotate utility to specify rotation parameters for log files.
/etc/mtab A file that stores a list of currently mounted filesystems.
/etc/passwd The file that contains user account information.
/etc/rc.d/init.d The directory in which most daemons’and startup/shutdown scripts are located.
/etc/rc.d/rc*.d The directories used to start and kill daemons in each runlevel.
/etc/rc.d/rc.local The final script executed during system startup.
/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit The first script executed during system startup.
/etc/shadow The file that contains the encrypted password as well as password and account expiry parameters for each user account.
/etc/skel A directory that contains files that are copied to all new users’ home directories upon creation.
/etc/syslog.conf The file that specifies the events for which the System Log Daemon listens and the log files to which it saves the events.
/etc/X11/XF86Config The configuration file used by the XFree86 implementation of X Windows.
/etc/X11/xorg.conf The configuration file used by the X.Org implementation of X Windows.
/home directory The default location for user home directories.
/lib directory The directory that contains shared program libraries (used by the commands in /bin and /sbin) as well as kernel modules.
/media directory A directory typically used for mounting removable media devices.
/mnt directory An empty directory used for temporarily mounting media.
/opt directory The directory that stores additional software programs.
/proc directory The directory that contains process and kernel information.
/proc/devices A file that contains currently used device information.
/root directory The root user’s home directory.
/sbin directory The directory that contains system binary commands (used for administration).
/tmp directory The directory that holds temporary files created by programs.
/usr directory The directory that contains most system commands and utilities.
/usr/local directory The location for most additional programs.
/var directory The directory that contains log files and spools.
/var/log A directory that contains most log files on a Linux system.
/var/spool/at A directory that stores the information used to schedule commands using the at daemon.
/var/spool/cron A directory that stores user cron tables.
; A shell metacharacter used to chain multiple commands together for execution.
| A shell metacharacter used to pipe the stdout from one command to the stdin of another command.
~ metacharacter A metacharacter used to represent a user’s home directory.
< A shell metacharacter used to obtain stdin from a file.
> A shell metacharacter used to redirect stdout and stderr to a file.
ab (Apache benchmark) command A command that can be used to obtain performance benchmarks for a Web server such as Apache.
absolute pathname The full pathname to a certain file or directory, starting from the root directory.
accepting printer A printer that accepts print jobs into the print queue.
active partition The partition searched for by an OS after the MBR.
Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment.
alias command A command used to create special variables that are shortcuts to longer command strings.
ANDing The process by which binary bits are compared to calculate the network and host IDs from an IP address and subnet mask.
apachectl command A command that can be used to start, stop, and restart the Apache Web server as well as check for syntax errors within the Apache configuration file.
Application The software that runs on an operating system and provides the user with specific functionality (such as word processing or financial calculation).
archive The location (file or device) that contains a copy of files; it is typically created by a backup utility.
Arguments The text that appears after a command name, does not start with a dash “-” character, and specifies information the command requires to work properly.
artistic license An open source license that allows source code to be distributed freely but changed only at the discretion of the original author.
assistive technologies Software programs that cater to specific user needs.
asymmetric encryption A type of encryption that uses a key pair to encrypt and decrypt data.
at command The command used to schedule commands and tasks to run at a preset time in the future.
at daemon (atd) The system daemon that executes tasks at a future time; it is configured with the at command.
authentication The process whereby each user must log in with a valid user name and password before gaining access to the user interface of a system.
Authentication The act of verifying a user’s identity by comparing a user name and password with a system database (/etc/passwd and /etc/shadow).
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) A feature that automatically configures a network interface using an IPv4 address on the 169.254.0.0 network.
awk command A filter command used to search for and display text.
background (bg) command The command used to run a foreground process in the background.
background process A process that does not require the BASH shell to wait for its termination. Upon execution, the user receives the BASH shell prompt immediately.
bad blocks The areas of a storage medium unable to store data properly.
Baseline A measure of normal system activity.
BASH shell The Bourne Again Shell; it is the default command-line interface in Linux.
BBC Linux A small CD/DVD-based Linux distribution.
Beowulf clustering A popular and widespread method of clustering computers together to perform useful tasks using Linux.
Berkeley Internet Name Daemon (BIND) The standard that all DNS servers and DNS configuration files adhere to.
binary data file compiled programs. A file that contains machine language (binary 1s and 0s) and stores information (such as common functions and graphics) used by binary
BIND configuration utility A graphical utility that can be used to generate and modify the files that are used by the DNS name daemon.
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) The part of a computer system that contains the programs used to initialize hardware components at boot time.
block The unit of data commonly used by filesystem commands; a block can contain several sectors.
block devices The storage devices that transfer data to and from the system in chunks of many data bits by caching the information in RAM; they are represented by block device files.
boot loader A small program started by BIOS that executes the Linux kernel in memory.
boot loader A program used to load an OS.
Broadcast The TCP/IP communication destined for all computers on a network.
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) A version of UNIX developed out of the original UNIX source code and given free to the University of California at Berkeley by AT&T.
buffer overrun An attack in which a network service is altered in memory.
bunzip2 command The command used to decompress files compressed by the bzip2 command.
bus mastering The process by which peripheral components perform tasks normally executed by the CPU.
bzcat command A command used to view the contents of an archive created with bzip2 to SO.
bzip2 command The command used to compress files using a Burrows-Wheeler Block Sorting Huffman Coding compression algorithm.
bzless command A command used to view the contents of an archive created with bzip2 to SO in a page-by-page fashion.
bzmore command A command used to view the contents of an archive created with bzip2 to SO in a page-by-page fashion.
cancel command The command used to remove print jobs from the print queue in the CUPS print system.
cat command A Linux command used to display (or concatenate) the entire contents of a text file to the screen.
cd (change directory) command A Linux command used to change the current directory in the directory tree.
cfdisk command A command used to partition hard disks; it displays a graphical interface in which the user can select partitioning options.
chage command The command used to modify password expiry information for user accounts.
chains The components of a firewall that specify the general type of network traffic to which rules apply.
character devices The storage devices that transfer data to and from the system one data bit at a time; they are represented by character device files.
checksum A calculated value that is unique to a file’s size and contents.
chfn command The command used to change the GECOS for a user.
chgrp (change group) command The command used to change the group owner of a file or directory.
child process A process that was started by another process (parent process).
chkconfig command A command that can be used to configure daemon startup by runlevel.
chmod (change mode) command The command used to change the mode (permissions) of a file or directory.
chown (change owner) command The command used to change the owner and group owner of a file or directory.
chsh command The command used to change a valid shell to an invalid shell.
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) notation A notation that is often used to represent an IP address and its subnet mask.
closed source software The software whose source code is not freely available from the original author; Windows 7, for example.
Cluster A grouping of several smaller computers that function as one large supercomputer.
Clustering The act of making a cluster; see also cluster.
command A program that exists on the hard disk and is executed when typed on the command line.
command mode One of the two modes in vi; it allows a user to perform any available text editing task that is not related to inserting text into the document.
Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) The printing system commonly used on Linux computers.
compiz A window manager that is commonly used within the KDE and GNOME desktops to provide 3D effects.
compress command The command used to compress files using a Lempel-Ziv compression algorithm.
compression The process in which files are reduced in size by a compression algorithm.
compression algorithm The set of instructions used to reduce the contents of a file systematically.
compression ratio The amount of compression that occurred during compression.
Concatenation The joining of text to make one larger whole. In Linux, words and strings of text are joined together to form a displayed file.
counter variable A variable that is altered by loop constructs to ensure that commands are not executed indefinitely.
cp (copy) command The command used to create copies of files and directories.
cpio (copy in/out) command A command used to run a common backup utility.
Cracker A person who uses computer software maliciously for personal profit.
cron daemon (crond) The system daemon that executes tasks repetitively in the future and that is configured using cron tables.
cron table A file specifying tasks to be run by the cron daemon; there are user cron tables and system cron tables.
crontab command The command used to view and edit user cron tables.
cups daemon (cupsd) The daemon responsible for printing in the CUPS printing system.
cupsaccept command The command used to allow a printer to accept jobs into the print queue.
cupsdisable command The command used to prevent print jobs from leaving the print queue.
cupsenable command The command used to allow print jobs to leave the print queue.
cupsreject command The command used to force a printer to reject jobs from entering the print queue.
curl command A command that can be used to obtain a Web page from a Web server.
cylinder A series of tracks on a hard disk that are written to simultaneously by the magnetic heads in a hard disk drive.
Daemon A Linux system process that provides a certain service.
daemon process A system process that is not associated with a terminal.
data blocks A filesystem allocation unit in which the data that makes up the contents of the file as well as the filename are stored.
Database An organized set of data.
database A file that contains data that is organized into tables.
database management system (DBMS) Software that manages databases.
dd command A Linux command that can be used to write image files to a device such as a USB flash memory drive or hard disk.
Debian Package Manager (DPM) A package manager used on Debian and Debian-based Linux distributions.
decision construct A special construct used in a shell script to alter the flow of the program based on the outcome of a command or contents of a variable. Common decision constructs include if, case, &&, and ||.
default gateway The IP address of the router on the network used to send packets to remote networks.
default runlevel The runlevel that is entered when the Linux system is initialized at boot time.
desktop environment The software that works with a window manager to provide a standard GUI environment that uses standard programs and development tools.
developmental kernel A Linux kernel whose minor number is odd and has been recently developed yet not thoroughly tested.
device driver A piece of software containing instructions that the kernel of an operating system uses to control and interact with a specific type of computer hardware.
device file A file used by Linux commands that represents a specific device on the system; these files do not have a data section and use major and minor numbers to reference the proper driver and specific device on the system, respectively.
df (disk free space) command A command that displays disk free space by filesystem.
digital signature Information that has been encrypted using a private key.
Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) A common asymmetric encryption algorithm that is primarily used for creating digital signatures.
directive A line within a configuration file.
Directory A special file on the filesystem used to organize other files into a logical tree structure.
disabled printer A printer that does not send print jobs from the print queue to a printer.
disk imaging software Software used to copy sectors between devices. For example, you can use disk imaging software to copy an ISO image to a disk device sector-by-sector, preserving the image’s boot sector. An ISO image copied in this way can be used to start the system BIOS.
disk mirroring A RAID configuration consisting of two identical hard disks to which identical data is written in parallel, thus ensuring fault tolerance. Also known as RAID 1.
disk striping A RAID configuration in which a single file is divided into sections, which are then written to different hard disks concurrently to speed up access time; this type of RAID is not fault tolerant. Also known as RAID 0.
disk striping with parity A RAID configuration that incorporates disk striping for faster file access, as well as parity information to ensure fault tolerance. Also known as RAID 5.
disk-burning software Software that can be used to record data to CD-RW or DVD-RW media.
Display Settings utility A graphical utility that can be used to configure the video card and monitor settings for use by X Windows.
Distribution A complete set of operating system software, including the Linux kernel, supporting function libraries and a variety of OSS packages; these OSS packages are what differentiate the various distributions of Linux.
dmesg command A command that displays hardware-related messages generated by the Linux kernel.
DNS cache file A file that contains the IP addresses of top-level DNS servers.
document root The directory on a Web server that stores Web content for distribution to Web browsers.
documentation The system information that is stored in a log book for future reference.
domain name space (DNS) A hierarchical namespace used for host names.
du (directory usage) command A command that displays directory usage.
dual boot A configuration in which two or more OSs exist on the hard disk of a computer; a boot loader allows the user to choose which OS to load at boot time.
dual booting The process of installing more than one operating system on a computer. The user can then choose the operating system to load at system startup.
dump command A command used to run a utility that creates full and incremental backups.
EasyBCD A free Windows utility that can be used to modify and configure the Windows boot loader so that it can dual boot a Linux OS.
echo command A command used to display or echo output to the terminal screen. It might utilize escape sequences.
edquota command A command used to specify quota limits for users and groups.
egrep command A variant of the grep command, used to search files for patterns using extended regular expressions.
ELILO A boot loader used with computers that support Intel Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) technology.
Emacs (Editor MACroS) editor A popular and widespread text editor more conducive to word processing than vi. It was originally developed by Richard Stallman.
enabled printer A printer that sends print jobs from the print queue to a printer.
env command A command used to display a list of exported variables present in the current shell, except special variables.
environment files The files used immediately after login to execute commands; they are typically used to load variables into memory.
environment variables The variables that store information commonly accessed by the system or programs executing on the system—together, these variables form the user environment.
escape sequences The character sequences that have special meaning inside the echo command. They are prefixed by the \ character.
Ethernet The most common media access method used in networks today.
executable program A file that can be executed by the Linux operating system to run in memory as a process and perform a useful function.
export command A command used to send variables to subshells.
exporting The process used to describe the sharing of a directory using NFS to other computers.
ext2 A nonjournaling Linux filesystem.
ext3 A journaling Linux filesystem.
ext4 An improved version of the ext3 filesystem with an extended feature set and better performance.
extended multiuser mode Also called runlevel 3; the mode that provides most daemons and a full set of networking daemons.
extended partition A partition on a hard disk that can be further subdivided into components called logical drives.
Facility The area of the system from which information is gathered when logging system events.
fault tolerant Term used to describe a device that exhibits a minimum of downtime in the event of a failure.
fdisk command A command used to create, delete, and manipulate partitions on hard disks.
fgrep command A variant of the grep command that does not allow the use of regular expressions.
field An attribute within a record in a database table.
file command A Linux command that displays the file type of a specified filename.
file descriptors The numeric labels used to define command input and command output.
file handles The connections that a program makes to files on a filesystem.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) The most common protocol used to transfer files across the Internet.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) The most common protocol used to transfer files across networks such as the Internet.
Filename The user-friendly identifier given to a file.
filename extension At the end of filename, a dot followed by a series of identifiers that denote the file type; the filename extension .txt denotes a text file.
filesystem The way in which a hard disk partition is formatted to allow data to reside on the physical media; common Linux filesystems include ext2, ext3, ext4, REISER, and VFAT.
filesystem The organization imposed on a physical storage medium that is used to manage the storage and retrieval of data.
filesystem corruption The errors in a filesystem structure that prevent the retrieval of stored data.
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) A standard outlining the location of set files and directories on a Linux system.
filter command A command that can take from stdin and send to stdout. In other words, a filter is a command that can exist in the middle of a pipe.
find command The command used to find files on the filesystem using various criteria.
firmware RAID A RAID system controlled by the computer’s BIOS.
firstboot wizard A configuration utility that is run at system startup immediately following a Fedora Linux installation.
Flavor A specific type of UNIX operating system. For example, Solaris and BSD are two flavors of UNIX.
foreground (fg) command The command used to run a background process in the foreground.
foreground process A process for which the BASH shell that executed it must wait for its termination.
Forking The act of creating a new BASH shell child process from a parent BASH shell process.
formatting The process in which a filesystem is placed on a disk device.
forward lookup A DNS name resolution request whereby an FQDN is resolved to an IP address.
free command A command used to display memory and swap statistics.
Free Identity, Policy, and Audit (FreeIPA) A set of security software that provides secure authentication across a network using several technologies that work together, including LDAP, Kerberos, NTP, and DNS.
Free Software Foundation (FSF) An organization, started by Richard Stallman, that promotes and encourages the collaboration of software developers worldwide to allow the free sharing of source code and software programs.
Freeware Software distributed by the developer at no cost to the user.
frequently asked questions (FAQs) An area on a Web site where answers to commonly posed questions can be found.
fsck (filesystem check) command A command used to check the integrity of a filesystem and repair damaged files.
ftp command A command-line FTP client that is found in most operating systems.
full backup An archive of an entire filesystem.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN) A string of words identifying a server on the Internet.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN) A host name that follows DNS convention.
fuser command A command used to identify any users or processes using a particular file or directory.
gedit editor A common text editor used within GUI environments.
General Electric Comprehensive Operating System (GECOS) The field in the /etc/passwd file that contains a description of the user account.
GNOME Display Manager (gdm) A program that provides a graphical login screen.
Created by: Sumbunny