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Chapter 6

Supporting Processors

An_______manages data and instructions entering and leaving the processor Input/output (I/O) unit
A__________manages all activities inside the processor Control unit
One or more arithmetic logic units (ALUs) Performs all logical comparisons, calculations
A_______holds counters, data, instructions, and addresses ALU is currently processing Registers
A processor’s memory cache inside the processor housing can be L1 cache (contained on the processor die), L2 cache (off the die), and L3 cache (farther from the core than L2 cache)
running a system bus or processor at a faster frequency than the component is designed to support is called Overclocking
Shut down system prevents permanent processor damage and reduces power consumption when demands low is called Processor Throttling
Processor contains more than one ALU Multiprocessing
Installing more than one processor on a motherboard is called Multiple processors
Processor housing contains two or more cores operating at same frequency, independently of each other(Dual core, triple core, quad core, octo core) Multi-core processing
The factor by which the bus speed or frequency is multiplied to get the CPU clock speed called multiplier
A small amount of faster RAM that stores recently retrieved data, in anticipation of what the CPU will request next, thus speeding up access called Memory cache (L1, L2, or L3)
Holds data as long as power on Static RAM (SRAM)
A programming instruction that can be executed by a CPU without breaking the instruction down into simpler instructions microcode
The Intel processor, chipset, wireless network adapter are all interconnected as a unit to improves laptop performance Centrino technology
Devices that used to keep a system cool include CPU fans, case fans, coolers, heat sinks, liquid cooling systems, dust-preventing tools
A second method of improving performance is installing more than one processor on a motherboard, creating a multiprocessor platform.
Heat sink carrying an electrical charge and Acts as an electrical thermal transfer device Peltiers
Small pump sits inside computer case and Tubes move liquid around components and away from them where fans cool the liquid Water coolers
A creamlike substance that is placed between the bottom of the cooler heatsink and the top of the processor to eliminate air pockets and to help to draw heat off the processor. Thermal compound
Computing technologies a processor can use include MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4, and 32-bit and 64-bit processing.
CPU using multi-core processing can have two cores (dual core supporting four instructions at once), three cores (triple core supporting six instructions at once), four cores (quad core supporting eight instructions at once), or eight cores octo core supporting sixteen instructions at once. Each core within a processor has its own independent internal L1 and L2 caches. all the cores might share an L3 cache within the processor package
when demands on the processor are low. Processor technologies that can throttle a CPU are PowerNow! by AMD and SpeedStep Technology (EIST) by Intel. Cool’n’Quiet by AMD lowers power requirements and helps keep a system quiet.
The ACPI power saving mode where the hard drive and monitor are turned off and everything else runs normally S1 state
The ACPI power saving mode where thehard drive, monitor, and processor are turned off. S2 state
The ACPI power saving mode where everything is shut down except RAM and enough of the system to respond to a wake-up call such pressing the keyboard is called S3 state,sleep mode or standby mode
The ACPI power saving mode where everything in RAM is copied to a file on the hard drive and the system is shut down. When the system is turned on, the file is used to restore the system to its state before shut down is called S4 or hibernation
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)defines CPU P states by Saves power by lowering CPU frequency, voltage
The technology that allows a processors to handle multiple threads in parrallel is called Hyper-Threading by Intel and Hyper Transport by AMD
The current families of Intel processors for desktops and laptops are (Several diffrent processors are within each family) The Core, The Pentium, and Celeron families
The current families of AMD processors for desktops are The Phenon, Athlon, Sempron
The most popular method of cooling overclocked processors is a(n) Liquid cooling systems
A processor security feature by Intel that prevents software from executing or reproducing itself if it appears to be malicious Execute Disable Bit
A memory cache is made of static RAM chips
In addition to registers, the processor has its own internal memory caches L1, L2, and possibly L3 that hold data and instructions waiting to be processed by the ALU
What three sockets are currently used for Intel processors in motherboards for desktop systems? LGA1366, LGA771, LGA775, and 478 sockets
The amount of memory included with the processor, called a memory cache
Processor core frequency is measured in gigahertz, such as 3.2 GHz
The current families of AMD processors for laptops are Turion Mobile, Athlon, and Sempron
the external bus, where data, instructions, addresses, and control signals are sent into and out of the processor. The data portion of the external bus is 64 bits wide. This bus is sometimes called the front-side bus (FSB) because it connects to front side of the processor that faces the outside world
Which is the first computing technology used by a processor to support repetitive looping whereby a processor receives an instruction and then applies it to a stream of data that follows? MMX (Multimedia Extensions)
Which computing technology (SSE1, SSE2, SSE3, or SSE4) better supports data mining applications? SSE4
Inside the processor housing, data, instructions, addresses, and control signals use the internal bus is 32 bits wide
The __________, which is Intel’s smallest processor and is used in low-cost PCs, laptops, and netbooks Intel Atom processor
What are the two major components of a processor cooler assembly? Heat sink and fan
If the power connector from the CPU fan has only three pins, it can still connect to the 4-pin header, but what functionality is lost? Adjustable speed control of the fan to lessen the noise in the system
What is the major disadvantage of using a peltier heat sink? The drastic difference in temperature between the peltier’s top surface and the bottom surface can cause condensation inside the case when the PC is turned off.
The portion of a processor’s internal bus that connects the processor to the internal memory cache. The bus operates at a much higher frequency than the front side bus. called back-side bus (BSB).
When overclocking a system, what two problems are most likely to occur? An unstable system that causes intermittent errors or Overheating
One beep followed by three, four, or five beeps Motherboard problems, possibly with DMA, BIOS setup chip, four, or five beeps timer, or system bus.
Two beeps, followed by three, four, or five beeps The solution is to replace RAM,
Three beeps followed by three,four, or five beeps Keyboard controller failed or video controller failed. likely these are embedded components on the motherboard.
Four beeps followed by two, three, or four beeps Problem with serial or parallel ports or system timer, which probably means the motherboard must be replaced.
Continuous beeps Problem with power supply. The power supply might need replacing; see Chapter 4. Sometimes a continuous beep can also mean something is holding down a key on the keyboard.
Siren sound The processor has overheated.
Missing NTLDR OR Missing BOOTMGR The boot loading program for the OS could not be found. Examine the hard drive for errors.
Missing operating system, error loading operating system The MBR is unable to locate or read the OS boot sector on the active partition. Boot from an OS setup CD or DVD and examine the hard drive file system for corruption
Device or program in registry not found Windows might be corrupted or a device driver might be missing or corrupted.
While Windows Vista/XP is loading,an unknown error message on a blue background is displayed and the system halts. These errors are called stop errors or blue screen errors and are usually caused by viruses, errors in the file system, a corrupted hard drive, a corrupted system file, or a hardware problem
The current families of Intel processors for desktops and laptops are the Core, the Pentium, and the Celeron families
Created by: fofo509