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Computer Hardware

Module Six: Supporting Hard Drives

How Hard Drives Work • Two main areas to understand oThe Drive and Drive Interface oReading/Writing data to the drive
Name the two types of hard drive technologies. Solid State or Magnetic
Parts of a magnetic hard drive oPlatters or Disks, Read/Write Heads, Actuator and Spindle oController
Magnetic hard drive data organization Magnetic patterns represent data Bits
Bits smallest physical
Bits are contained in Sectors
Sectors smallest physical group
Sectors are assembled into Clusters
Clusters smallest logical group
Clusters make up Tracks
Tracks on multiple disks (heads) combine to make Cylinders
Cylinders combine to make Partitions
At least one partition (sometimes multiple partitions is on a single Hard Drive
Multiple hard drives may be combined into a single Volume (with OS support)
Parts of a solid-state hard drive oNon-volatile flash memory oController
The process whereby tracks and sectors are written to a hard drive is called: Low level formatting
The process whereby a partition is created on a hard drive is called: High level formatting or operating system formatting
Hard Drive Controller BIOS interface between the System BIOS and the data on the drive
LBA Mode sequential numbering system for all sectors on a hard drive
Hard Drve OS and other software + System Bios + Hard Drvier controller BIOS
Parallel ATA (EIDE) Interface for CD-ROMs, DVDs and other devices
ANSI standards define the speed of the EIDE connection (in MB/sec)
Drives require 40 or 80-conductor data cable (depends on ANSI standard)
Motherboards typically had two Parallel (EIDE) interfaces Primary and Secondary
Name the two currently popular methods of connecting external hard drives: USB and Firewire
If a motherboard has two PATA ATA-2 channels, how many IDE devices can it support using two data cables? Four
The two methods a hard drive can use to transfer data to memory are: DMA (Direct Memory Access) transfer mode or PIO (Programmed Input/output Transfer)
A PC has two hard drives on the same IDE channel. One is an ATA/66 and the other is ATA/100. What speeds will the two hard drives run at? Both drives will run at the speed of the slower drive unless the motherboard chipset controling the ATA connection suppors a feature called Independent Device Timing.
Serial ATA oNewest interface technology, expected to replace parallel technologies oUses a narrow data cable, designed to handle large, high-performance drives oThree standards (revisions) SATA 1, 2, & 3
Identify the max length of an internal SATA cable 1 meter in length
Hard Drive Selection •Auto detection allows BIOS to configure a drive for best performance •Newer drives in older systems may require oBIOS Update, new Controller Card or new Motherboard
RAID •Fault Tolerance – the ability to withstand faults/failures •Dynamic disks allow various implementations
Which RAID provides performance increase, better use of volume capacity and fault tolerance? RAID 5
Hard Drive Installation •Set Drive Configuration as necessary and secure in open slot •Connect Cables: Data Cable and Power Connection •Boot PC oBIOS/CMOS Setup Auto Setup or Manual Setup •Partition and high-Level (OS) Format
A technician is installing a SATA drive that has two power connectors. Which connector should the technician use to complete the installation? Serial ATA power connector
Active Partition The primary partition on the hard drive that boots the OS. Also called the system partition
Cluster One or more sectors that constitute the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing data
Extended Partition The only partition on a hard drive that can contain more than one logical drive
High-level Formatting Formatting performed by the windows format program (for example, format c:/s), the windows installation program, or the Disk management utility.
IDE/EIDE A hard drive whose disk controller is integrated into the drive, eliminating the need for a controller cable and thus increasing speed, as well as reducing price.
Low-level Formatting A process (usually performed at the factory) that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors and tests for bad spots on the disk surface
Parallel ATA (PATA) An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat or round data cable or an 80- conductor cable and a 40 pin IDE connector.
Primary Partitions A hard disk partition thaat can contain only one volume.
Sector On a disk surface one segment of a track, which almost always contains 512 bytes of data.
Zone bit Recording is used by disk drives to store more sectors per track on outer tracks than on inner tracks. It is also called Zone Constant Angular Velocity (Zone CAV or Z-CAV or ZCAV
Serial ATA (SATA) An ATAPI cabling method that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable.
Created by: booaphi