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Cisco Networking

Chapter 1-3

Describe the Presentation Layer. translates, encrypts, or prepares data from the Application layer for network transmission.
Describe the Network Layer. handles routing information for data packets.
Describe the Session Layer. Establishes, maintains, and manages sessions between applications.
Describe the Transport Layer. Segments and reassembles data and provides either connection-oriented or connectionless communications.
Describe the Data Link layer. handles link control and uses the MAC address on the NIC.
Describe the Physical layer. Provides the electrical and mechanical transmission of data.
Describe the Application layer. provides network services to the user.
Describe the Media Access Control (MAC) address. It is a physical number set during the manufacturing process, MAC addresses contain 12 hexadecimal numbers, computers use this address to uniquely identify themselves on the network.
Describe the network address. This address is used when routing communications between different network segments, it is set at layer 3 of the OSI model, and an example of this type of address is an IP address.
What are connectionless services also called? unreliable services.
What type of services receive an acknowledgment from the destination? reliable and connection-oriented services.
What is the correct descending order of data encapsulation? 1. data conversion, 2. segment header added, 3. packet creation and network header, 4. frame headers and trailers added; and 5. bit transmissions
Describe a WAN? a network spread over multiple geographic areas and usually connected by publicly and privately maintained media.
Describe a LAN? a network that is contained in a single geographic area such as a building or floor in a building.
What are the reasons for providing a layered OSI architecture? to provide design modularity, which allows upgrades to a specific layer to remain separate from the other layers, to enable programmers to specialize in a particular layer, and to allow for standardized interfaces from networking vendors.
On a network, what must a computer use in order for communication to occur? common protocols.
Before networks, what did people use to transfer files? Sneakernet.
A protocol is to a computer as a(n) is to a person. language
Which of the following are network hardware? NIC, network media, connectors.
Which of the following are network software? components that map to the Application layer of the OSI model, NOS
Do all networking vendors follow the OSI model and design seven-layer architectures? No, there is the TCP/IP model and Cisco model.
Where do communications on a network originate? source.
Which computer are transmitted signals bound for? destination
What is information transmitted on a network called? data frame
Name the 7 layers of the OSI model. Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical
Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for media access and packaging data into frames? Data Link layer.
At which layer of the OSI model will encryption and compression occur? Presentation layer.
Which layer is responsible for finding the best path to route packets within an internetwork? Network
Name a reliable communications protocol? TCP
Which protocol is used by the TFTP protocol UDP
Name protocols which are used by the TCP/IP Application layer protocol. DNS, FTP, TFTP, NFS, SMTP, Telnet, rlogin, SNMP, DNS, HTTP
What is the range of Registered Ports? 1,024 through 49,151
What is the range of Dynamic/Private Ports 49,152 through 65,535
How does TCP establish a reliable connection between two points? TCP uses a three-way handshake. This process involves the exchange of three data packets before the communication process begins.
What is an expectational acknowledgment? A TCP acknowledgment process in which the acknowledgment number refers to the next expected sequence number.
What is the function of the Internet Protocol (IP)? It provides a connectionless delivery service. It moves packets around the network, including through routers.
What does ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol do? It controls and manages IP communications.
How many message types does ICMP use to manage the different aspects of IP communications? 8. They are destination unreachable, time exceeded, parameter problem, source quench, redirect, echo request/reply, timestamp request/reply, and information request/reply.
What is the function of ARP? It resolves IP addresses to MAC addresses for source hosts that know the IP address of the destination host, butt not the MAC address.
What does the acronym RARP stand for? Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
What is the function of RARP? It provides IP address to MAC address resolution. The host knows its MAC address, but not its IP address.
What are the tables that maintain MAC and IP addresses of other devices on the network called? ARP tables.
Where are ARP tables maintained? RAM (Randam Access Memory)
How do networks ensure that ARP table entries contain current entries? They place a timer on ARP entries.
What is the process of removing ARP entries from an ARP table called? aging
RARP has been largely replaced by what protocol? DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
What protocols provide the same basic functionality as RARP? BOOTP and DHCP
How does segmenting a network reduce network traffic? Routers do not forward broadcast traffic from one segment to another by default.
What do routers do. They segment networks
What does the acronmym PING stand for? Packet Internet Groper.
What does the PING utility do? It verifies connectivity between two points.
When the ping command is issued, what happens? the source node sends out ICMP echo request packets to the specified destination node.
What does the trace utility do? It uses ICMP messages to determine the path between a source and destination host. It can discover all of the hops (routers) along the path between two points.
What is an ICMP flood? It is used by a malicious user or program and sends a large quantity of ICMP echo requests to a target device in an attempt to crash or greatly reduce the performance of the target device.
What does a router do? They connect two or more network segments.
How does a router determine which of its interfaces is connected to the destination network? It uses a routing table.
What are the two types of routing tables? Static and dynamic.
What does TTL stand for, and what does it mean? Time-to-live is the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded.
Why is a packet discarded when its TTL is zero? It prevents a packet from looping endlessly around the network.
What methods are used by dynamic routers to determine the best path across a network? They use distance-vector or link-state algorithms.
How does the distance-vector algorithm determine the best path across a network? It considers the number of hops between two points.
How does a router use the link-state algorithm? It takes network traffic, connection speed, and other factors into consideration.
What is the Cisco Three-Layer Hierarchical Model? It is a model that emphasizes good network design and involves the access layer at the bottom, the distribution layer in the middle, and the core layer at the top.
What layer of the Cisco 3-layer model is closest to the users? The bottom layer (Access layer).
What is the middle layer of the Cisco three-layer model? Distribution layer. It provides many networking services (NAT, firewall protection, and QoS) and implements network policies.
What is the top layer of the Cisco three-layer model? The Core layer is the top layer and is responsible for switching large amounts of data quickly and efficiently.
What is a node? It is a connection point or junction on the network. It can be a terminal or a computer connected to the network.
A feature of TCP used to control the flow of communications between two hosts. Sliding windows
How does the TCP sliding window regulate how often acknowledgments will be sent to the transmitting host from the receiving host. the size of the TCP sliding window
A TCP acknowledgment process in which the acknowledgment number refers to the next expected sequence number. expectational acknowledgment
A protocol that provides network administrators the ability to centrally control and monitor the network. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The number of hops that a packet can make before it is discarded. time-to-live (TTL)
What keeps a packet from looping endlessly around the network. When its TTL is zero, the router discards the packet.
Created by: 1592245141