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SB82 Urology

SB82 Urology quiz questions loosely based on Fiser's ABSITE Review, 3rd edition.

Location of Gerota's fascia Around kidney
Right renal artery crosses ________ (anterior/posterior) to IVC Posterior
Ureters cross __________ (over/under) iliac vessels Under
Reason why left renal vein can be ligated from IVC if necessary Left renal vein has collaterals
Most common cause of acute renal insufficiency following surgery Hypotension
Most common type of renal calculi Calcium oxalate stones
Second most common type of renal calculi Struvite aka magnesium ammonium phosphate
Collaterals involved with left renal vein 1) Left adrenal vein 2) Left gonadal vein 3) Left ascending lumbar vein
Percentage of renal calculi that are calcium oxalate 75%
Percentage of renal calculi that are struvite 15%
Type of renal calculi that are always radiolucent Uric acid stones
Terminal ileum resection causes increase in what type of renal calculi? Calcium oxalate
Struvite stones are more common in what conditions? Infection with urease-producing organisms (Proteus mirabilis)
Staghorn calculi belong to which type of renal calculus? Struvite
Uric acid stones are more common in these three conditions Ileostomies, gout, myeloproliferative disorders
Renal calculi: Indications for surgery (4) Intractable pain or infection, progressive obstruction, progressive renal damage, solitary kidney
If kidney stone size is greater than ________, they are not likely to pass 6 mm
#1 cancer killer in men ages 25-35 Testicular cancer
Main symptom of testicular cancer Painless hard testicular mass
Rationale during orchiectomy for testicular cancer for using an inguinal incision rather than transscrotal incision Inguinal incision does not disrupt lymphatics
Most testicular masses are ____________ (benign/malignant) Malignant
LDH correlates with what aspect of testicular cancer? Tumor bulk
90% of testicular tumors are ___________ Germ cell tumors
Imaging for testicular cancer US to assist in diagnosis, CXR to assess for pulmonary metastases, CT to check for retroperitoneal and mediastinal burden
Lab tests for testicular cancer LDH, AFP, beta-HCG
What condition causes increased risk for testicular cancer? Cryptorchidism
Most common type of testicular cancer in cryptorchidism Seminoma
Most common testicular cancer Seminoma
As opposed to seminomas, NSGCTs have an elevation of this substance AFP
Testicular seminomas spread to the ____________ Retroperitoneum
NSGCTs spread through the __________________ Bloodstream
Seminoma is extremely sensitive to this treatment Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy for seminoma patients with positive nodes, metastatic disease, or bulky retroperitoneal disease Cisplatin, bleomycin, VP-16
Areas of spread for NSGCTs Lungs and retroperitoneum
NGSCTs with a ___________ component are more likely to spread to the retroperitoneum Teratomatous
Treatment for stage I NSGCT Orchiectomy and retroperitoneal node dissection
Most common location of prostate cancer Posterior lobe of prostate
Most common site and appearance of prostate cancer metastasis Bone, usually osteoblastic and hyperdense on X-ray
Treatment for Stage IA prostate cancer discovered with TURP No treatment necessary
Expected PSA three weeks after prostatectomy 0
Reasons for elevated PSA Cancer, BPH, prostatitis, repeated catheterization
Action of flutamide Testosterone blocker
Action of leuprolide Luteinizing hormone blocker
Lab test to assess metastases from prostate cancer Alkaline phosphatase - elevated with bony metastasis
Most common primary tumor of kidney Renal cell carcinoma
Percentage of renal cell carcinomas that are calcified 15%
Triad of symptoms in RCC Abdominal pain, hematuria, mass
Percentage of patient with RCC who have metastases at time of diagnosis 33%
Treatment for isolated lung or liver metastases due to RCC Wedge resection
Most common site for RCC metastases Lung
Cause of hypertension in RCC Erythrocytosis due to increase erythropoietin in RCC
Structures excised in radical nephrectomy Kidney, adrenal, fat, Gerota's fascia, regional lymph nodes
Most common primary tumor that metastasizes to kidney Breast
Renal angiomyolipomas usually occur in this genetic disorder Tuberous sclerosis
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome Multifocal and recurrent RCC, renal cysts, CNS tumors, pheochromocytomas
Rationale for excising renal angiomyolipomas Excise if symptomatic, usually if >4cm
Most common type of bladder cancer Transitional cell carcinoma
Main symptom of bladder cancer Painless hematuria
Bladder cancer is more common in _________ (males/females) Males
Risk factors for developing bladder cancer Smoking, aniline dyes, cyclophosphamide
Treatment for stage I bladder cancer Intravesical BCG or transurethral resection
Treatment for stage II bladder cancer Cystectomy with ileal conduit, chemotherapy, radiation
Chemotherapy regimen used to treat bladder cancer MVAC - methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, cisplatin
Cause of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder Schistosomiasis
Created by: StudyBug82
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