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Genetics 6-8 14-15

Genetics Chapter 6,7,8,14,15 Vocab

linkage groups a group of genes that are linked together because they are found on the same chromosome.
trihybrid cross a cross in which an experimenter follows the outcome of three different traits.
recombinant (1) refers to combinations of alleles or traits that are not found in the parental generation; (2) describes DNA molecules that are produced by molecular techniques in which segments of DNA are joined to each other in ways that differ from their original
testcross an experimental cross between a recessive individual and an individual whose genotype the experimenter wishes to determine.
trihybrid cross a cross in which an experimenter follows the outcome of three different traits.
lysogenic cycle a type of growth cycle for a phage in which the phage integrates its genetic material into the chromosome of the bacterium. This integrated phage DNA can exist in a dormant state for a long time, during which no new bacteriophages are made.
lytic cycle a type of growth cycle for a phage in which the phage directs the synthesis of many copies of the phage genetic material and coat proteins. These components then assemble to make new phages. When synthesis and assembly is completed, the bacterial host cel
minimal medium a type of growth medium for microorganisms that contains a mixture of reagents that are required for growth; nothing additional has been added.
minute a unit of measure in bacterial conjugation experiments. This unit refers to the relative time it takes for genes to first enter a recipient strain during conjugation.
natural transformation a natural process of transformation that occurs in certain strains of bacteria.
noncomplementation the phenomenon in which two mutant alleles in the same organism do not produce a wild
nonhomologous recombination the exchange of DNA between nonhomologous segments of chromosomes or plasmids.
nucleoprotein a complex of DNA (or RNA) and protein.
phages) viruses that infect bacteria.
plaque a clear zone within a bacterial lawn on a petri plate. It is due to repeated cycles of viral infection and bacterial lysis.
plasmids a general name used to describe circular pieces of DNA that exist independently of the chromosomal DNA. Some plasmids are used as vectors in cloning experiments.
prophage phage DNA that has been integrated into the bacterial chromosome.
paracentric inversion an inversion in which the centromere is found outside of the inverted region.
pericentric inversion an inversion in which the centromere is located within the inverted region of the chromosome.
polyploid an organism or cell with three or more sets of chromosomes.
polytene chromosome chromosomes that are found in certain cells, such as Drosophila salivary cells, in which the chromosomes have replicated many times and the copies lie side by side.
pseudodominance a pattern of inheritance that occurs when a single copy of a recessive allele is phenotypically expressed because the second copy of the gene has been deleted from the homologous chromosome.
polycistronic RNA an mRNA transcribed from an operon that encodes two or more proteins.
positive control genetic regulation by activator proteins.
promoter a sequence within a gene that initiates (i.e., promotes) transcription.
prophage phage DNA that has been integrated into the bacterial chromosome.
polyA binding protein
promoter bashing the approach of making deletions in the vicinity of a promoter as a way to identify the core promoter and regulatory elements.
relaxosome a protein complex that recognizes the origin of transfer in F factors and other conjugative plasmids, cuts one DNA strand, and aids in the transfer of the T DNA.
reciprocal translocation when two different chromosomes exchange pieces.
repetitive sequences DNA sequences that are present in many copies in the genome.
Robertsonian translocation the structure produced when two telocentric chromosomes fuse at their short arms.
repressible genes a gene that is regulated by a corepressor or inhibitor, which are small effector molecules that cause transcription to decrease.
repressor a regulatory protein that binds to DNA and inhibits transcription.
riboswitch a part of an mRNA molecule that can directly bind a small target molecule, and whose binding of the target affects the gene's activity.
regulatory sequence, or element a sequence of DNA (or possibly RNA) that binds a regulatory protein and thereby influences gene expression. Bacterial operator sites and eukaryotic enhancers and silencers are examples.
RNA interference the phenomenon that double
silencers a DNA sequence that functions as a regulatory element. The binding of a regulatory transcription factor to the silencer decreases the level of transcription.
short interfering RNAs (siRNAs)
splicing factors a protein that regulates the process of RNA splicing.
SR proteins a type of splicing factor.
steroid receptor a category of transcription factors that respond to steroid hormones. An example is the glucocorticoid receptor. sex pilus (pl. pili)
sex pilus (pl. pili) sex pilus (pl. pili) - a structure on the surface of bacterial cells that acts as an attachment site to promote the binding of bacteria to each other.
segmental duplication - a small segment of a chromosome that has a tandem duplication.
simple translocation - when one piece of a chromosome becomes attached to a different chromosome.
submetacentric describes a chromosome in which the centromere is slightly off center.
temperate phage - a bacteriophage that usually exists in the lysogenic cycle.
transduction - a form of genetic transfer between bacterial cells in which a bacteriophage transfers bacterial DNA from one bacterium to another.
transformation - 1) when a plasmid vector or segment of chromosomal DNA is introduced into a bacterial cell; (2) when a normal cell is converted into a malignant cell.
telocentric - describes a chromosome with its centromere at one end.
tautomers - the forms of certain small molecules, such as bases, which can spontaneously interconvert between chemically similar forms.
terminal deletion when a segment is lost from the end of a linear chromosome.
tetraploid having four sets of chromosomes (i.e., 4n)
translocation (1) when one segment of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to a different chromosome; (2) when a ribosome moves from one codon in an mRNA to the next codon
triploid an organism or cell that contains three sets of chromosomes
trisomic a diploid cell with one extra chromosome (i.e., 2n  1).
temperate phage a bacteriophage that usually exists in the lysogenic cycle.
terminator a sequence within a gene that signals the end of transcription.
translational regulatory protein a protein that regulates translation.
TFIID a type of general transcription factor in eukaryotes that is needed for RNA polymerase II function. It binds to the TATA box and recruits RNA polymerase II to the core promoter.
tissue specific genes
transcription factors a broad category of proteins that influence the ability of RNA polymerase to transcribe DNA into RNA.
up regulation genetic regulation that leads to an increase in gene expression.
vertical gene transfer the transfer of genetic material from parents to offspring or from mother cell to daughter cell.
virulent phages a phage that follows the lytic cycle.
virus a small infectious particle that contains nucleic acid as its genetic material, surrounded by a capsid of proteins. Some viruses also have an envelope consisting of a membrane embedded with spike proteins.
metacentric describes a chromosome with the centromere in the middle.
mitotic nondisjunction an event in which chromosomes do not segregate equally during mitosis.
monoploids an organism with a single set of chromosomes within its somatic cells.
monosomic a diploid cell that is missing a chromosome (i.e., 2n − 1).
mosaicism when the cells of part of an organism differ genetically from the rest of the organism.
nonallelic homologous recombination recombination that occurs at sites within chromosomes due to the occurrence of repetitive sequences.
nondisjunction event in which chromosomes do not segregate properly during mitosis or meiosis.
Created by: Liwa91
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