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BA115 Test 2

Ch 9-11

QuestionAnswer
the creation of finished goods and services using the factors of production: land labor, capital, entrepreneurship, and knowledge production
the term used to describe all the activities managers do to help their firms create goods production management
a specialized area in management that converts or transforms resources (including human resources) into goods and services operations management
the value producers add to materials in the creation of finished good and services form utility
that part of the production process that physically or chemically changes materials process manufacturing
that part of the production process that puts together components assembly process
a production process in which long production runs turn out finished good over time continuous process
a production process in which the production run is short and the machines are changed frequently to make different products intermittent process
the use of computers in the design of products computer aided design (CAD)
the use of computers in the manufacturing of products computer aided manufacturing (CAM)
the uniting of computer aided design with computer aided manufacturing computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
designing machines to do multiple tasks so that they can produce a variety of products flexible manufacturing
the production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production lean manufacturing
tailoring products to meet the needs of individual customers mass customization
the process of selecting a geographic location for a company's operations facility location
working from home via computer and modem telecommuting
the physical arrangement of resources (including people) in the production process facility layout
a computer based operations management system that uses sales forecasts to make sure that needed parts and materials are available at the right time and place materials requirement planning (MRP)
a newer version of MRP that combines the computerized functions of all the divisions and subsidiaries of the firm- such as finance, human resources, and order fulfillment- into a single integrated software program that uses a single database enterprise resources planning (ERP)
the function in a firm that searches for high quality materials resources, finds the best suppliers, and negotiates the best price for goods and services purchasing
a production process in which a minimum of inventory is kept on the premises and parts, supplies, and other needs are delivered just in time to go on the assembly line just in time(JIT)inventory control
consistently producing what the customer wants while reducing errors before and after delivery to the customer quality
a quality measure that allows only 3.4 defects per million opportunities Six Sigma quality
the process some managers use to continually monitor all phases of the production process to assure that quality is being built into the product from the beginning statistical quality control (SQC)
the process of testing statistical samples of product components at each stage of the production process and plotting those results on a graph. Any variances from quality standards are recognized and can be corrected if beyond the set standards statistical process control (SPC)
the common name given to quality management and assurance standards ISO 9000
a collection of the best practices for managing an organization's impact on the environment ISO 14000
a method for analyzing the tasks involved in completing a given project, estimating the time needed to complete each task, and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
in a PERT network, the sequence of tasks that takes the longest time to complete critical path
bar graph showing production managers what projects are being worked on and what stage they are in at any given time Gantt chart
the personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals intrinsic reward
something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work; extrinsic rewards include pay increases, praise, and promotions extrinsic reward
studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques scientific management
studies, begun by Frederick Taylor, of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task time-motion studies
theory developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth that every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions principle of motion economy
the tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied Hawthorne effect
Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social, and esteem needs to self-actualization needs Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
In Herzberg's Theory of motivating factors, job factors that cause employees to productive and that give them satisfaction motivators
In Herzberg's theory of motivating factors, job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased hygiene factors
the idea that setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated by organizational conditions goal setting theory
a system of goal setting and implementations, it involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle level managers, supervisors, and employees management by objectives (MBO)
Victor Vroom's theory that the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectation of the outcome expectancy theory
theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways reinforcement theory
the idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions equity theory
a motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker thought the job itself job enrichment
a job enrichment strategy that involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment job enlargement
a job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another job rotation
the process of determining human resource needs and then recruiting, selecting, developing, motivating, evaluating, compensating, and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goals human resource management (HRM)
employment activities designed to "right past wrongs" by increasing opportunities for minorities and women affirmative action
discrimination against white or males in hiring or promoting reverse discrimination
a study of what employees do who hold various job titles job analysis
a summary of the objectives of a job, the type of work to be done, the responsibilities and duties, the working conditions, and the relationship of the job to other functions job description
a written summary of the minimum qualifications required of workers to do a particular job job specifications
the set of activities used to obtain a sufficient number of the right employees at the right time recruitment
the process of gathering information and deciding who should be hired, under legal guidelines, to serve the best interest of the individual and the organization selection
employees that include part time workers, temporary workers, seasonal workers, independent contractors, interns, and co op students contingent workers
all attempts to improve productivity by increasing an employee's ability to perform. training and development
the activity that introduces new employees to the organization; to fellow employees; to their intermediate supervisors, and to the policies, practices, and objectives of the firm orientation
training at the workplace that lets the employee learn by doing or by watching others for a while and then imitating them on the job training
training programs during which a learner works alongside and experienced employee to master the skills and procedures of a craft apprentice programs
internal or external training programs away from the workplace that develop any of a variety of skills or foster personal development off the job training
training programs in which employees complete classes via the internet online training
training done in schools where employees are taught on equipment similar to that used on the job vestibule training
the use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and task so trainees can learn skills before attempting them on the job job simulation
the process of training and educating employees to become good managers, and then monitoring the progress of the managerial skills over time management development
the process of establishing and maintaining contacts with key managers in and outside the organization and using those contacts to weave strong relationships that serves as informal development systems networking
an experienced employee who supervises, coaches, and guides lower level employees by introducing them to the right people and generally being their organizational sponsor mentor
an evaluation that measure employee performance against established standards in order to make decisions about promotions, compensation, training, or termination performance appraisal
benefits such as sick leave pay, vacation pay, pension plans, and health plans that represent additional compensation beyond base wages fringe benefits
fringe benefits plan that allows employees to choose the benefits they want up to a certain dollar amount cafeteria style fringe benefits
work schedule that gives employees some freedom to choose when to work, as long as they work the required number of hours flextime plan
in a flextime plan, the period when all employees are expected to be at their job stations core time
an arrangement whereby two part time employees share one full time job job sharing
Created by: forevermoody
 

 



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