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A&P 2 - E2 - P2

A&P 2 - Exam 2 - Part 2 - Lymphatic System

Two roles of the lymphatic system are _____________. maintaining fluid balance and role in immunity
The LS plays a role in maintaining ____________ balance. fluid
The LS returns _____________ fluid to blood. interstitial
In the LS, excess fluid is NOT returned to ___________. capillaries
The LS returns __________ to blood that incidentally leak from ____________. proteins, capillaries
The LS is essential in maintaining _____________ pressure in the blood. osmotic
If fluid is not returned to blood ___________ and death will result. edema
The lymphatic system returns _______ and other substances to the blood. fats
____________ fluid fills the spaces between cells. interstitial
Interstitial fluid is formed from ______________ leaking from capillaries. blood plasma water
Interstitial fluid can also be formed by small amounts of __________ and other molecules that leak from capillaries. protein
___________ is a type of fluid found in lymphatic vessels. lymph
___________ is formed by interstitial fluid mixing with __________ after entering the lymphatic capillaries. lymph, protein
What are the three substances that compose lymph? water, protein, fat and other substances
Both __________ and ___________ fluid resemble blood plasma in composition. lymph, interstitial
__________ are a type of lymphatic capillary that act as lymphatic drains in the intestines. lacteals
Lymphatic capillaries begin as _________ ended capillaries. blind
Endothelial cells of lymphatic capillaries are attached to tissue by connective tissue ___________. filaments
Endothelial cells of lymphatic capillaries are attached to tissue by ____________ filaments. connective tissue
In lymphatic capillaries pores between _____________ cells open as the volume of interstitial fluid ___________. endothelial, increases
___________ of lymphatic capillaries exist in tissues. networks
The structure of lymphatic vessels resembles veins except, lymphatics have ______________ walls. thinner
The structure of lymphatic vessels resembles veins except, lymphatics contain more _________. valves
The structure of lymphatic vessels resembles veins except, lymphatics contain __________ nodes. lymph
Lymphatic pumps are ___________ valves in lymphatics. one-way
Five things that cause the movement of lymphatic pumps are ____________. breathing, skeletal muscle contractions, arterial pulsations, postural changes, massage of soft tissue
Two functions of the lymph nodes are _________________. defense, hematopoiesis
Two ways the lymph nodes function in defense are _____________. filtration, phagocytosis
The lymph node is the site in hematopoiesis, where maturation of some lymphocytes and monocytes that migrated from ___________ occurs. red marrow
The lymph node is the site in hematopoiesis, where maturation of some ________ and ________ that migrated from red marrow occurs. lymphocytes, monocytes
The three tonsils are ____________. palatine, pharyngeal and lingual
What tonsils are known commonly as the "tonsils" and are located on the left and right side of the back of the mouth? palatine tonsils
Concerning the function of the thymus, immature ____________ formed in ___________ move to the thymus. lymphocytes, red marrow
In the thymus, lymphocytes mature and are distributed to the _______, _________, and __________ before birth. spleen, lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue
After birth the thymus secretes ___________. thymosin
Thymosin, secreted by the thymus, enables lymphoctyes to develop into ___________. T cells
In the spleen, blood first enters the __________ which is full of ____________. white pulp, lymphocytes
In the spleen, after blood enters the white pulp it then enters the ___________. red pulp
In the spleen, after blood enters the red pulp it then enters __________ and then into ________. venous sinuses, veins
The spleen functions in hematopoiesis by the maturation of _________ and _________. lymphocytes, monocytes
The spleen functions in hematopoiesis by forming _________ before birth. red blood cells
Most organs containing developing lymphocytes quit growing at _________. puberty
Lymphatic organs including the thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils __________ over time. atrophy
Which lymphatic organ remains intact and does NOT atrophy over time? spleen
Structures of the Lymphatic System Lymph Nodes, Tonsils, Spleen, Thymus, Red Bone Marrow
Begins to atrophy around the age of 14 Thymus
Functions of the Lymphatic System Maintenance of fluid balance, Absorption of fats, Immunity
How the lymphatic system maintains fluid balance Absorbs remaining fluid in tissues and returns it to the bloodstream
Where does the lymphatic system absorb fats Small intestines
Lymph nodes and lymphatic organs filter what out of lymph Microorganisms and foreign particles
The loosely overlapping epithelial cells of the lymphatic vessels allow for what? Quick diffusion
What do the protein filaments do? Anchor the vessel to surrounding tissue to support the vessel and keep it from collapsing
Lymph on its way back to the heart is filtered where? Lymph nodes
How do lymph nodes remove bacteria and other foreign particles? Phagocytosis
Where do B-cell lymphocytes mature and what kind of response Bone marrow where they differentiate into plasma cells which produce antibodies. Antibody-mediated response=extracellular pathogens, like bacteria (15%)
Where do T-cell lymphocytes mature and what kind of response Thymus. Cell-mediated response= intracellular pathogens, like viruses, some cancer cells, and tissue transplants (80%)
What is contained inside a lymph node? Macrophages
Why would a lymph node swell? When breaking down foreign particles.
What is in the red pulp of the spleen? Erythrocytes.
What is in the white pulp of the spleen? Masses of lymphocytes
What are the functions of the spleen? Immunity, Destruction of old RBCs Blood storage, Hematopoiesis
How does the spleen provide immunity White pulp screens the blood for foreign antigens.
What are the three lines of defense for the immune system? First: External Barriers Second: Nonspecific Immunity Third: Specific Immunity
What is Nonspecific immunity? The production of phagocytic WBCs, the triggering of inflammation and fever (aims broad range of pathogens)
What is Specific immunity and what are the two types When the body retains a memory of a pathogen, and specific antibodies respond if the pathogen is reintroduced (aims specific pathogens.)/passive & active
What are Natural killer cells? Unique groups of lymphocytes that roam the body seeking pathogens or disease cells that attack self-cells (5%)
What is a lysozyme? An enzyme that destroys bacteria found in mucus, tears, and saliva.
What is chemotaxis and when does it happen When inflamed cells release a chemical that summons neutrophils/step 3 in mobilization of defenses
What do Interferons do? Polypeptides that prevent viral replication by attacking viruses. Stimulates destruction of cancer cells. (produced from lymphocytes and macrophages)
What do the complement proteins do? Inactive proteins in blood plasma, and when activated by pathogens, enhance immune, allergic, and inflammatory reactions by attacking bacteria.
Histamine is a _________ and increases ____________ Vasodilator/capillary permeability
What kind of immunity is inflammation? Nonspecific Immunity
What is ischemia? Lack of O2 in the tissue
What is the term for fever and what kind of immunity Pyrexia/nonspecific
What is a pyrogen? A chemical produced by neutrophils and macrophages that stimulates the anterior hypothalamus to secrete PGE (prostaglandin E) (promotes fever)
What does PGE (Prostaglandin E) do? Resets the body's temperature set point.
What are the four signs of inflammation? Swelling, Redness, Heat, Pain/Tenderness
Why does swelling occur in inflammation? increased capillary permeability and filtration causes fluid to leak out of vessels (edema)
Why does redness/heat occur in inflammation? Blood rushes to the area (hyperemia) (erythema)
What happens when pain and tenderness occur in inflammation? Inflammatory chemicals (bradykinin & prostaglandins) secreted by damaged cells puts pressure on nerves from swelling
What is Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity? Antibodies attack/destroy/kill cells that have been infected (host cells). (uses T-cells)
What is Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity? Antibodies attack/destroy/kill pathogens outside of the cell in the plasma or on the surface of the cell (uses B-cells)
What is active immunity? When the body makes its own antibodies or T-cells (long term)
What is passive immunity? When immunity results from an injection of antibodies from another person or animal (short term)
What is natural active immunity? When the body produces one's own antibodies or T cells in response to a pathogen (memory cells)
What is artificial active immunity? When the body produces one's own antibodies or T cells in response to a vaccine. (memory)
What is natural passive immunity? When a fetus or baby temporary acquires antibodies from the mother through the placenta or breastfeeding. (no memory)
What is artificial passive immunity? When someone receives serum containing antibodies from a person or animal through an injection (antibodies) snakebite, rabies, and tetanus (no memory)
What are some examples of conditions that would call for artificial passive immunity? AIDS, rabies, botulism
What do cytotoxic t-cells do? Carry out the attack
What do helper t-cells do? Help promote t cells and b cell action, support cytotoxic t-cells, secrete chemicals to trigger chemotaxis
What do memory t-cells do? Remember the pathogen in case of future invasion.
How do the B-cells stop antigens? Secreting antibodies that stop antigens.
What is an allergy? Hypersensitivity of the immune system to an environmental substance that normally is not a problem.
What is produced upon the first exposure to an allergen? Immunoglobulins (IgG) (Antibodies)
Type 2 hypersensitivity Antibody-dependent, cytotoxic. IgM or IgG binds to antigens on cells and lyses them through complement fixation; transfusion reaction. (myasthenia gravis)
Type 1 (acute) hypersensitivity signs and symptoms Anaphylaxis; Basophils produce inflammatory chemicals; Constriction of airways, vasodilation, Red, itchy, raised rash, swelling of face, lips, tongue, watery eyes, runny nose
What is anaphylactic shock? Immediate allergic reaction that worsens to the point of circulatory shock and maybe even sudden death.
What is Diapedesis and when does it happen Leukocytes squeeze between endothelial cells into tissue space/step 2 in mobilization of defenses
What is Margination and when does it happen Leukocytes adhere to blood vessel walls (cell adhesion molecules.)/step 1 in mobilization of defenses
Mobilization of defenses WBCs travel to and accumuate near vessel walls, but do not touch (margination), cells adhere to wall, then squeezes its way through the wall (diapedesis), then WBCs go through chemotaxis leading them to site of injury where they begin phagocytosis
What is serotonin Secreted by basophils (during inflammation) and it is a vasoconstrictor
Inflammation Heparin=anticoagulant. Histamine acts fast causing vasodilation and increase in capillary permeability. Serotonin vasoconstricts down stream causing more pressure and fluid near cell damage to send the bacteria to LS instead of further down the vessel.
Phagocytosis Microbes adheres to outside of Phagocyte (macrophage) and phagocyte ingests (endocytosis) microbe (phagosome) where it fuses with lysosomes (phagolysosome)digests enzymes, last, exocytosis dead material out of cell/keep if antigens are present
Lymph flow mechanisms Flows at low pressure/speed. Flow aided by skeletal muscle pump. Valves prevent backflow. Rapid flowing blood in subclavian veins draws lymph in.
What significantly increases lymph fluid return Exercise
What lymphatic cells are antigen presenting cells Macrophages, dendritic cells, reticular cells
Resistance The ability to ward off a disease
Nonspecific (innate immune system) resistance General defensive mechanisms effective on a wide range of pathogens (lacks specific responses to specific invaders.) Only recognizes self-cells. No immune memory.
Specific resistance (adaptive immunity) The ability to fight a specific pathogen, ex: -pox, toxins, viruses (cell mediated immunity & antibody mediated.) Can recognize self/non-self. Has immune memory.
Nonspecific resistance examples External mechanical & chemical barriers and internal nonspecific defenses: antimicrobial proteins, natural killer cells & phagocytes, and inflammation & fever
Mechanical protection Skin (shedding), mucous membranes, and washing actions of tears, saliva, and urine.
Chemical protection Sebum inhibits growth bacteria & fungus, sweat lysozymes break down bacterial cells, and acidic pH of gastric juice/vaginal secretions destroys bacteria
Transferrins proteins Iron binding proteins that inhibit bacterial growth by reducing available iron
Abscess vs. ulcer Accumulation of pus in a confined space not open to outside (pimple or boil--worse than ulcer due to being closed off and can get anaerobic infections)/open sore
Stasis ulcers People with poor oxygen and nutrient supply to tissues of legs (diabetics with advance atherosclerosis)
Complement system: Classical pathway C1 (complement protein) recognizes any antigen-antibody complex then it is activated, leading to a cascade of events: C3b (opsonization)
C3b Is used for opsonization (marking cells) of microbes to promote phagocytosis. Also leads to C5a/b which leads to C6, C7, C8, C9 which forms MAC "mac attack" (membrane attack complex) = cytolysis of microbe, used for bacterial cells
Epitope Smallest part of an antigen that stimulates the immune response
Hapten Smaller substance that cannot trigger an immune response unless attached to body protein, ex: lipid of poison ivy
MHC Antigens Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens- How you recognize self from non-self.
Who carries and doesn't carry MHC1 All nucleic cells (so RBCs do not)
Who carries MHC2 Any cell that carries an antigen on the outside of the cell, so other cells don't attack them. Ex: macrophages, B cells, thymus cells
Processing of Exogenous Antigens Foreign antigen in body fluid that gets phagocytized by APC (antigen-presenting cell), fragments of foreign antigen stick to MHC2 molecule on APC where it migrates to LS tissue to find T-cells
Processing of Endogenous Antigens Viral or cancerous antigens produced within body cell where they become part of MHC1 molecule on cell's surface, it signals that a cell needs help because it is infected or cancerous.
Suppressor T cells Limit cell-mediated attack after T cells have destroyed virus. Prevents auto immune disease
What are the 4 classes of T cells 1. Cytotoxic (killer) T cells 2. Helper T Cells 3. Suppressor T cells 4. Memory T cells
What are the 5 classes of antibodies IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
IgA function Monomer in plasma, found in body's secretions: mucus, saliva, tears, milk, etc.
IgD functions Monomer, B cell membrane antigen receptor
IgE functions Monomer, found on outside of basophils, tonsils, skin and mucus membranes, stimulants release of histamines, attracts eosinophils.
IgG functions Monomer, 75-85% circulating, crosses placenta to fetus, secondary immune response, binds complement
IgM Monomer, B cell membrane antigen receptor, pentamer in plasma, primary immune response, agglutination
Antibody actions Complement activation, enhance phagocytosis by turning on eosinophils, opsinozation, agglutination & precipitation, neutralization of antigens by blocking effects of toxins (snake venom)
Primary immune response (immunological memory) First exposure to antigen, response is steady & slow. Memory cells may remain for decades (IgM)
Secondary immune response with 2nd exposure (immunological memory) 1000's of memory cells proliferate & differentiate into plasma cells & cytotoxic T cells. Recognition and removal is so quick, you're not even sick (IgG)
Type 3 hypersensitivity Immune complex- Widespread antigen-antibody complexing, triggers intense inflammation (acute glomerulonephritis and in systemic lupus erythematosus)
Type 4 hypersensitivity 12-72 hour delay. APC's in lymph nodes display antigens to helper T cells, which secrete interferon and lymphokines that activate cytotoxic T cells and macrophages (cosmetic & poison ivy-haptens)
Severe combined autoimmune deficiency disease (boy in the bubble) Hereditary lack of T and B cells, vulnerability to opportunistic infection
AIDS Invades helper T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells by "tricking" them to internalize viruses by receptor mediated endocytosis.
What is a retrovirus Uses viral RNA as template to synthesize DNA, new DNA inserted into host cell DNA, may be dormant for months to years (AIDS)
AIDS signs and symptoms Early; flu-like chills and fevers. Progress to night sweats, fatigue, headache, extreme weight loss, lymphadenitis. Normal Th count is 600-1200 cells, but AIDS it is <200. Thrush; white patches on mucus membranes. Kaposi Sarcoma
Kaposi Sarcoma Cancer originates in endothelial cells of blood vessels, causes purple/black lesions on skin
Tumor Immunotherapy Cells with anti tumor activity are injected into bloodstream of cancer patient. Replaces patient's inactive cytotoxic T cells with interleukin-2 (called Lymphokine-activated killer cells; TAK.) Can cause tumor regression, but has severe complications.
Created by: K1N1V



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