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PHYSIO - Exam #2

QuestionAnswer
define hematocrit (Hct) What percentage of total volume is red blood cells [normal = 45%] - if RBC's is low = anemia - low total volume = dehydration
define serum blood plasma without fibrinogen (clotting) and other clotting factors
define plasma: albumin, globulin, fibrogen - fluid portion of blood containing mostly water and some proteins: - Albumin: maintains osomotic pressure of blood - Globulin protein: transporters - Fibrinoogen protein: blood clotting Proteins are made in the liver (except immunoglobulins, globulin
define buffy coat contains white blood cells (WBC's) and platelets
define anemia - hemoglobin content is too low = the blood cannot transport enough oxygen to the tissues - most common in iron deficiency and women b/c of menstration - low hemoglobin=low O2=anemia - hemolytic anemia: RBC destruction is greater than RBC production
define hematopoiesis the synthesis of blood cells beginning in embryonic development and continues throughout a person's life - process of making the formed elements in blood - process of producing specialized cells in the blood (RBC, WBC, platelets)
define pluripotent stem cell a cell that has not gone through the process of specialization yet - ability to develop into many different cell types - used for stem cell research to alter the unspecialized cells to w.e the researcher wants them to be
define hypoxia lack of oxygen in the tissues - stimulates production of a transcription facter called hypoxia-inducible factor 1 which increases erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis - EPO process helps body maintain homeostasis
define red blood cells/erythrocyte (RBC's) red blood cells are most abundant cell type in the blood - facilitates oxygen transport from the lungs to cells, and carbon dioxide transport from cells to lungs - sink to the bottom of a test tube when spun on a centrifuge b/c of heavy weight
define white blood cells/leukocytes (WBC's) play's a huge roll in the body's immune response, defending the body against foreign invaders - lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils
define erythropoietin (EPO) glycoprotein that controlls the production of RBC's (erythropoiesis) - primarily made in the kidneys of adults - made on demand and not stored - regulates production of RBC - released b/c of low oxygen levels (hypoxia)
define erythropoiesis production of RBC's - RBC's lose their nucleus right before they get released to the blood stream
define platelet/thrombocytes important in coagulation, process which blood clots provent blood loss in damaged blood vessels - cell fragments of megakaryocytes which sheds small fragments of small, colorless, and lacking nuclei platelet - life span of about 10 days
structure of hemoglobin tetramer comprising four globular protein chains - 2 2 alpha and 2 beta proteins (globlin) - has an iron-containing heme group at the center (low hemoglobin=low O2=anemia)
function of hemoglobin transports oxygen
location of hemoglobin in RBC's - transferred to different organs to be altered ex: the spleen converts Hb into bilirubin
What is the role of iron? iron is essential to produce heme groups within hemoglobins - iron taken from diet, bone marrow uses iron to make hemoglobins
How hemoglobin is used in assessing blood glucose levels in diabetes? glucose binds with hemoglobin producing hemoglobin A1c ("A-one-C) - the amount of hemoglobin A1c is related to hemoglobin's exposure to glucose over the preceding 8-12 weeks
Where and when are RBC's destroyed? RBC's die in the spleen (some in the liver) after approximately 120 +/- 20 days
Sickle Cell Anemia RBC's releases O2 they become crystallized, so when they come across one another, they get tangled causing a blockage in the blood vessel
Hemolytic Anemia RBC destruction is greater than RBC production
Iron Deficiency Anemia low in iron, hemoglobin lacks sufficient amount of heme groups containing iron
Aplastic Anemia caused by certain drug and radiation
Polycythemia stem cell dysfunction that produces too mych blood cells
Relative Polycythemia blood cell count is normal, but their hematocrit is elevated because of low plasma volume
autocrine signal cell releases ligand and binds to its own cell
paracrine signal cell releases ligand and attaches to neighboring cell by diffursion
lipophilic signal receptor is inside the cell, such as cytoplasm or nucleus - can go through lipid membrane - goes into nucleus and tells it what to make (genes and proteins)like mRNA
hydrophilic signal receptors on the surgace
ligand signal that binds to receptor (some type of stimulus)
agonist ligand that gives same response and binds to same receptor
antagonist ligand that binds to the same receptor that blocks receptor activity
Created by: faye5