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Non-Hormonal Contra

QuestionAnswer
What are 2 mechanisms to contracept? 1. affect gamete production/release (ovulation, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, folliculogenesis) 2. prevent gametes from coming together
What are 2 ways to prevent gametes from coming together 1. reproductive tract impairment 2. gamete impairment (maturation, function)
What are 7 barriers to developing new contraception? 1. drugs for healthy people 2. lack of knowledge of drug-able targets 3. challenge if drug target protected by blood-testis barrier 4. lack of interest by drug companies 5. cause infertility? 6. will it be used-marketable, profitable 7. should it be
What are 2 categories of contraception? 1. Hormonal 2. Non-hormonal
What are 3 hormonal contraceptive methods? 1. Introduce exogenous steroids to suppress endogenous gonadotropins 2. Disrupt reproductive environment 3. Post-coital/emergency contraception
What are 2 non-hormonal contraceptive methods? 1. Prevent gamete delivery (Surgical sterilization, 2 non-surgical barrier methods) 2. Intrauterine devices (could also be hormonal)
List birth control methods from most effective to least effective (5 categories) 1. implants, injections, surgical sterilization, IUDs 2. ring, patch, pill 3. condoms, diaphragms 4. avoid sex when most fertile, withdrawal, microbicides 5. no birth control
What are 2 surgical sterilization methods? 1. Vasectomy (no scalpel vasectomy) 2. Tubal ligation (laproscopy, more invasive/expensive)
What are 4 barrier methods? 1. Condoms 2. Diaphragms/cervical caps 3. Spermicides 4. IUDs
What are problems with condoms/diaphragms/cervical caps? Inconsistent usage (10 million use this method, but 33% don't use consistently)
What is a common spermicide? Nanonxyl 9 (disrupts lipid membranes, controversial method)
What are 3 types of IUDs? 1. Progestin containing 2. Copper containing 3. Standard/inert (less common)
Suggest some novel techniques for contraception ??
Pros and Cons of copper IUD PRO: can be done 5 days after unprotected sex, very effective EC, works for up to 10 yrs CONS: expensive, inconvenient
How do IUDs work? Copper IUDs? -inflammatory response (WBCs phagocytose sperm) -toxic environment for sperm -disrupts endometrial receptivity for embryo -copper may affect sperm motility/viability, endometrium metabolism/gene expression
Ideal traits in molecular targets -protein expressed only in target cell/tissue -protein regulating single, crucial function -protein easily disrupted -inhibitor
Issues with immunocontraception -Ab must be present in reproductive tract -May not be reversible -For humans? Effective in all?
Molecular targets of interest 1. ZP proteins 2. Unique sperm antigens 3. Anti-embryo/implantation targets
Created by: aram1