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R44

Emergency Procedures

QuestionAnswer
Land Immediately Land on the nearest clear area where a safe normal landing can be performed. Be prepared to enter autorotation during approach, if required.
Land as soon as Practical Land at the nearest airport or other facility where emergency maintenance may be performed
Power failure May be caused by either an engine or drive system failure and will usually be indicated by the low RPM horn
Engine failure May be indicated by a change in noise level, nose left yaw, Oil pressure light, or decreasing engine RPM
Drive system failure May be indicated by an unusual noise or vibration, nose right or left yaw, or decreasing rotor RPM while engine RPM is increasing.
Power Failure Below 8 Feet AGL 1.Apply right pedal as required to prevent yawing. 2.Allow rotorcraft to settle. 3.Raise collective just before touchdown to cushion landing
Maximum Glide Distance Configuration 1.Airspeed approximately 90KIAS. 2.Rotor RPM approximately 90%. 3.Best glide ratio is about 4.7:1 or one nautical mile per 1300 feet AGL.
Minimum Rate Of Descent Configuration Airspeed approximately 55KIAS. 2.Rotor RPM approximately 90%. 3.Minimum rate of descent is about 1350 feet per minute. Glide ratio is about 4:1 or one nautical mile per 1500 feet AGL
Air Restart Procedure Do Not Attempt if engine malfunction is suspected or before safe autorotation is established. Not recommended below 2000'AGL. 1. Mixture-off 2. Throttle-closed 3. Starter-engaged 4. Mixture-Move slowly rich while cranking.
Ditching- Power Off 1. Follow same procedures as for power failure over land until contacting water. 2. Apply lateral cyclic when aircraft contacts water to stop blades from rotating. 3. Release seat belt and quickly clear aircraft when blades stop rotating.
Loss of Tail Rotor Thrust During Forward Flight 1. Failure is usually indicated by nose right yaw which cannot be corrected by applying left pedal. 2. Immediately enter autorotation. 3. Maintain at least 70KIAS if practical. 4. Select landing site, throttle into detent, and perform autorotation landing
Loss Of Tail Rotor Thrust During Hover 1. Failure is usually indicated by right yaw which cannot be stopped by applying left pedal. 2. Immediately roll throttle off into detent spring and allow aircraft to settle. 3. Raise collective just before touchdown to cushion landing.
Electrical Fire In Flight 1. Master battery switch- Off. 2. Alt switch- Off. 3. Land Immediately. 4. Extinguish fire and inspect for damage. (Low RPM warning system and governor are inoperative with master battery and alternator off)
Tachometer Failure If Rotor or Engine tach malfunctions in flight, use remaining tach to monitor RPM. If it is not clear which tach is malfunctioning or if both tachs malfunction, allow governor to control RPM and land as soon as practical.
Tachometers Each tach, the governor, and the low RPM warning horn are on separate circuits. A special circuit allows the battery to supply power to the tachs even if the master battery and alternator switches are both off.
Hydraulic System Failure Indicated by heavy or stiff cyclic and collective controls. 1.Adjust airspeed and flight conditions as desired for comfortable control. 2. HYD switch- verify ON. 3. If hydraulics not restored, HYD switch- OFF. 4. Land as soon as practical.
Governor Failure If engine RPM governor malfunctions, grip throttle firmly to override the governor, then switch governor off. Complete flight using manual throttle control.
Oil Light Indicates loss of engine power or oil pressure. Check engine tach for power loss. Check oil pressure gage and, if loss is confirmed, land immediately. Engine failure may occur.
MR Temp, MR Chip, TR Chip Excessive Temp in MR gearbox, Metal Particles in MR gearbox, Metal Particles in TR gearbox
MR Temp, MR Chip, TR Chip notes If light is accompanied by any indication of a problem such as noise, vibration, or Temperature rise, Land Immediately. If no other indication land as soon as practical.
Low Fuel Light Indicates 3 gallons and roughly 10 minutes of fuel at cruise power.
AUX Fuel Pump Light Indicates low aux fuel pump pressure. If no other indication of a problem, land as soon as practical. If light is accompanied by erratic engine operation, land immediately.
Fuel Filter Light Indicates contamination of fuel strainer. If no other indication of a problem, land as soon as practical. If accompanied by AUX fuel pump light or erratic engine operation, land immediately
Clutch Light 7-8 secs or flickers, pull clutch circuit breaker, reduce power, and land immediately. Be prepared to enter autorotation. Inspect drive system for possible malfunction.
Alternator Light Indicates low voltage and possible alternator failure. Turn off nonessential electrical equipment and switch alternator off and back on after one second to reset overvoltage relay.
Low RPM Horn and Light Horn and Light indicate the rotor RPM may be below safe limits. Immediately roll throttle on, lower collective and, in forward flight, apply aft cyclic. The horn and light are disabled when collective is full down
Created by: heli_instructor