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Midterm Exam Review

Review for Anatomy and Physiolgy Midterm Exam

Define Active Transport the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
the reactions of anabolism and catabolism store and release energy, respectively, and together constitute what? metabolsim
Define Catabolism the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones and releases energy.
Define Homeostasis a condition of a stable internal environment
Define Anabolism the buildup of larger molecules from smaller ones, and requires energy
RNA does what? RNA molecules copy and transfer genetic code information to the cytoplasm where proteins are manufactured.
The name of the WBC (white blood cell) that eats or engulfs bacteria? Monocytes
List the stages of mitosis. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telephase
energry released from glucose and other nutrients is made useful to cells by what cell part? Golgi Appartaus
A ____ section divides the body into right and left portions. sagittal
A ___ section divides the body into superior and inferior portions. it is often called a cross section. Transverse
An appendicular portion of a cavity would include what body parts? Upper and Lower limbs
List body regions in order from right to left starting with top row. Right hypochondriac region Epigastric Region Left hypochondriac region Right Lumbar Region Umbilical Region Left Lumbar Region Right ilia region hypogastric region
The abdominal area can be divided into how many regions? Nine (9)
A ___ section divides the body into anterior and posterior sections? Coronal
The events of prophase is? 1st stage of mitosis... results in DNA condensing into chromosomes, centrioles, migrating into poles, micotubules or the cytoskeleton reorganizing into fibers, and the disappearance numclear membran
The ventral cavity is made up of which two cavities? Thoracic Cavity and Abdominopelvic cavity
The events of Telophase the final stage of mitosis... begins when the chromosomes have completed their migrations, the nuclear envelope reappears and the chromosomes begin to unwind.
The events of Anaphase is? occurs as the spindle fibers contract and pull the sister chromatids toward the centrioles
The events of Metaphase is? Occurs as spindle fibers attach to centromeres on the chromosomes, and the chromosomes align midway between centrioles.
Type AB blood has both A and B antigens, and ____ antibodies in the plasma. NO
Type B blood has B antigens on red blood cells and _______ antibodies in the plasma. Anti-A
Type A blood has A antigens on red blood cells and _____ antibodies in the plasma. Anti-B
List the different blood types Type A, Type B, Type AB, Type O, Type Rh
what is the position of the body when it is said to be in anatomical position? the body is standing erect, face foward, with the upper limbs at the side and the palms forward.
The acronym for Deoxyriboncleic Acid is? DNA
What is DNA? Dexoxribonucleic acid, contains the gentic code needed for synthesis of each protein (including enzmyes)required by the cell.
what are white blood cells? Leukocytes (white blood cells) help to defend against disease.
List the different types of leukocytes. Granular Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Agranular monocytes, and Lymphocytes
Define Red Blood Cells Erythrocytes (red blood cells) biconcave disks that contain one-third (1/3) oxygen-carrying hemoglobin by volume.
Production of erythrocytes is dependent on a diet that includes what? Iron, folic acid, vitamin B12
Is plasma included in bone marrow? NO
when does a problem occur persons of Rh blood type? within females during pregnancy. mostly during 2nd pregnancy. the woman's body become sensitized, and antibodies from to fight Rh positive blood cells.
What is Rh blood type? named after the rhesus monkey. is when the Rh factor surface protein is present on red blood cells, the blood is Rh positive; otherwise it is Rh negative
Which white blood cell aids in the bodys defense process by secreting histamine and heparin? Basophils
the process in which small dissolved substances are forced out through thin porous walls of blood capillaries, but the larger particles are left behind is call? Filtration
The universal blood type is blood type O
Type O blood has neither antigen, but ____ types of antibodies in the plasma. both
The dorsal cavity can be divided into which two areas? cranial cavity and vertebral canal
An axial portion of a cavity would include what? Head, Neck, and Trunk
The four (4) primary types of tissue found in the human body are? 1. epithelial 2. connective 3. muscle 4. nervous
structures that allow respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the tympanic cavity is? the auditory tube
the function of this tissue is protection secretion absorption and excretion epithelial
this tissue type covers the body surface, cover and line internal organs, and compose glands epithelial
the distinguishing characteristics of this tissue is. it lacks blood vessels readily divide and cells are tightly paced epithelial
the function of this tissue is to bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fat, and produce blood cells connective
the location of this tissue is widely distributed throughout the body? connective
this tissue mostly have a good blood supply, cells are farther apart than cells of epithelial, with a matrix in the between. connective
this tissues function is movement muscle
this tissue is attached to bones in the hollow walls of internal organs, the heart, brain, spinal cord, nerves muscle
the distinguishing characteristics of this tissue is contractile muscle
this tissue transmit impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception nervous
this tissue is located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves nervous
this tissue connects to each other and other body parts nervous
this tissue functions in the exchange of gases in the lungs and lines blood and lymph vessels as well as body cavities. simple squamous epithelium
the four major types of tissue in the human body are? epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
which tissue is made up of a single layer of thin flatted cells? simple squamous epithelium
it functions in secretion and absorption in the kidneys, and in secretion in glands. Simple cuboidal epithelium
what carries artery oxygenated blood to the heart tissue and effect if blocked? systemic circuit
the pacemaker is SA Node. SA is the acronym for _____. Sinoatrial Node
The _____ increase the surface area available for absorption. Microvilli
Cilia may be present along with mucus-secreting globlet cells that line and sweep debris from respiratory tubes. Pseudostratified Columanar Epithelium
This tissue is made up of cells designed to produce and secrete substance into ducts or into body fluids? Glandular Epithelium
How are glands classified? by the ways the glands secrete their products
Glands release entire cells. (sebaceous glands) Holocrine
Glands lose portions of their cell bodies during secretion. (mammary glands) Apocrine
the AV Node also can be called ____. Atrioventricular Node
which node provides the only normal conduction pathway between the atrial and ventricular syncytia? AV Node
this tissue may be ciliated. is made up of a row of enlongated cells whose nuclei are all located near the basement membrane. Simple Columnar Epithelium
another name for red blood cells is? Erythrocytes
____ ______ is designed to distend and return to its normal size as it does in the lining of urinary bladder? transitional epithelium
this design provides distensibility and keeps urine from diffusing back into the internal cavity? transitional epithelium
_____ in the liver and spleen phagocytize damaged red blood cells. macrophages
a skin condition in which healthy skin cells dry out is called? kratinization
travel of blood in order. superior & inferior vena cava right artium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary valve pulmonary artery lung pulmonary vein left artium bicuspid left ventricle aortic valve aorta
this tissue makes up the bulk of the heart and pumps blood through the heart chambers and into blood vessels. cardic
damaged tissue release a chemical called, what? tissue thromboplastin
similar to pinocytosis, but the cell takes in solids rather than liquids. phagocytosis
the reverse process secretes a substance stored in a vesicle from the cell, is known as what? exocytosis
water molecules diffuse from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. osmosis
fine cytoplasmic granules that appear light purple in neutral stain. neutrophil
contain coarse uniformly size cytoplasmic granules that appear deep red in acid stain. eosinophils
the largest blood cells are two to three times larger than red blood cells. monocytes
slightly larger than red blood cells, has a large round nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm lymphocytes
leukocytes better known as ____ ____ ____ protects against disease. white blood cells
the total number of white blood cells excedding 10,000 mm of blood leukocytosis
a total number of white blood cells count below 5,000 mm of blood leuknopenia
________ is released by damaged tissue as a first step in forming a blood clot? Thromboplastin
The alpha globin that the liver continually produces and is thus a normal constituent of plasma Prothrombin
what give rough er the textured appearance when viewed with an electron microscope? ribosomes
what is smooth ER? Endoplastic Recticulum that lacks ribosomes
what houses the genetic material and controls cellular activities? Nucleus
The garbage disposals of the cell is? lysomsomes
this tissue is anchored to the basement membrane? epithelial tissue
glands that release fluid products by exocytosis are known as? merocrine
which is the most effective means of hemostasis? blood coagulation
this ______ muscle is found in the walls of internal organs, and in the digestive tract, blood vessels, and urinary bladder? smooth muscle
this tissue is widespread throughtout the body, covers organs and lines body surfaces? epithelial tissue
a single layer of cube-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. simple cuboidal epitheium
this tissue line the uterus, stomach, and intestines. protects underlying tissues, secretes digestive fluids, and absorbs nutrients simple columnar epithelium
which tissue makes up the outter layer of skin, lines the mouth, throat, vagina, and anal canal? stratified squamous epithelium
goblet cells (mucus-secreting) can be found among? columar cells
cells are arranged in ____ that provide specific functions for the body. tissues
This muscle tissue lacks striations, is uninucleate, and consists of spindle-shaped cells? smooth muscle tissue
glands that secrete products into ducts. exocrine
Molecules pass through membranes by diffusion or osmosis because of random movements. filtration
cells that break down drugs and alcohol have extensive networks of what? smooth er
where does protein synthesis occurs? ribosomes
_____ are attached to ER membranes or are scattered throughtout the cytoplasm? ribosomes
the acronym for Endoplastic Reticulum is? ER
Macrophages in the liver and spleen ______ damaged red blood cells. Phagocytize
the outter membrane that is studded with tiny, spherical structures called ribosomes is called? Rough ER
Before a cell actively divides it must grow and duplicate much of its contents so that two daughter cells can form from one, is known as? Interphase
a stack of about six flattened membranous sacs, are known as? golgi apparatus
proteins arrive at the golgi apparatus enclosed in vesicles fuse with the membrane at the _______ ______ of the golgi apparatus. innermost end
the series of changes that a cell undergoes from the time it forms until it divides, is known as what? the cell cycle
why is deoxyhemoglobin blood, dark red? oxygen is release from the blood.
the process by which moleucles or ions scatter or spread spontaneously from regions where they are in higher concentrations to regions where they are in lower concentrations is know as what? diffusion
the cytoplasm fills out this cell. Nucleus
Phagocytosis is known as cell eating
functions of smooth ER. move food through the digestive tract constricts blood vessels and empties the uninary bladder.
the two red blood cells are/ deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin
This organelle refines, packages, and transports proteins synthesized on ribosomes associated with the ER. Golgi Apparatus
what forces molecules through membranes? filtration
Smooth ER contains enzymes that are important in what? lipid synthesis absorption of fats from digestive tract the metabolism of drugs.
why is oxyhemoglobin bright red? oxygen is binded into the blood.
diffusion can also be call what? simple diffusion
another name for white blood cells is? leukocytes
this type of tissue is made up of layers of flattened cells that are designed to protect underlying layers? Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Glands that secrete into body fluids and blood are? endocrine
this cells are not truly layered. they appear layered due to the varying position of their nuclei within the row of cells. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
this tissue consists of two to three layers of cuboidal cells? stratified cuboidal epthelium
this tissue consists of several layers of cells and is found in the vas deferns? stratified columnar epithelium
the cells (muscle fibers) are long and cylindrical, striated, have many nuclei and contract from nervous impulse. skeletal muscle
which one catalyzes a reaction that cuts fibrinogen into pieces of fibrin, which join, forming long threads? Thrombin
the skin and its accessory organs makes up the _______ system. integumentary
what are the functions of the skin? provides a protective covering, regulates body temperature, retards water loss from deeper tissues, houses sensory receptors, synthesizes various biochemicals, and excretes small quantities of wastes. is vital in maintaining homeostasis.
the skin consists of an outer ________ and an underlying _______, connected to underlying tissue by the ______ layer (hypodermis) epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous
the epidermis is made up of stratified ____ epithelium and lacks _______. squamous, blood vessels
which is the living, reproducing layer of skin? stratum basale
Proteins in the epidermis, keratin, what is it's function? waterproof
what is the function of melanin in the skin? provides skin color.
what cell produces melanin? melanocytes
the factors that contribute to the color of the skin. genetic, environmental, & physiological factors.
the dermis consists of ___ tissue with collagen and elastic fibers within a gel-like ground substance. connective
the subcutaneous layer is composed of? loose connecting tissue & insulating adipose tissue
what are the functions of the subcutaneous layer? it binds the skin to underlying organs and contains the blood vessels that supply the skin.
where can hair be found? in nearly all regions of the skin.
define the term hair follicle. an invagination of the lower epidermis that dips down into the dermis.
what is the function of the arrector pili muscle? attaches to each hair follicle, cause goose bumps when cold or frightened.
what determines hair color? genetic, melanin & melanocytes is responsible for most hair colors. dark hair has eumelanin while blonde and red hair has pheomelanin
what type of gland is sebaceous glands? holocrine gland
what structure are sebaceous glands associated with? hair follicles
the secretion of sebaceous glands is called? sebum
Nails consists of stratified ____ epithelial cells overlying the nail bed, with the ____ as the most actively growing region of the nail root. squamous, lunla
proper temperature regulation is vital to maintaining ____. metabolic reactions
the body responds to excessive heat by dilation of dermal blood vessels and ____. sweating
the body responds to excessive heat by ______ of dermal blood vessels and sweating. dilation
the body responds to excessive cooling by _____, dermal blood vessels, inactivation _____ glands, and increasing muscle usage through _____. constricting, sweat, and shivering.
inflammation in which blood vessels ____ dilate and become more _____ causing tissues to become red and swallen is the body's normal response to injury. dilate, permeable
superficial cuts are filled in by reproducing ____ cells. epithelial
deeper cuts car closed off by ____, covered by _____ and eventually filled in by _______. clots, scabs, fibroblasts
large wounds leave scars and healing may be accompanied by the formation of _______. granulations.
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