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PBHS Biology

The structural and functional units of all living organisms Cell
Single-celled Unicellular
Having more than one cell Multicellular
lack a membrane-bound nucleus and intracellular organelles Prokaryotic/Prokaryotes
having membrane-bound nuclei and distinct organelles Eukaryotic/Eukaryotes
Nuclear DNA during Interphase Chromatin
Cell division forming 2 identical daughter cells maintaining the number diploid of chromosomes mitosis
Form of DNA immediately before and during cell division chromosomes
Cell division forming the sex cells; reduces the number of chromosomes to the haploid (1/2 #)number meiosis
Reproduction that does not involve sex cells (gametes) asexual reproduction
Cell organelle that is the director/control center of the cell nucleus
Site of protein synthesis Ribosome
Organelle that stores water, food, waste. Few or none in animal cells vacuole
Gel-like substance outside the nucleus NOT including the organelles cytosol
Stack of membrane bound vesicles that "packages" proteins Golgi Apparatus
Gel-like substance outside the nucleus INCLUDING the organelles cytoplasm
Continuation of outer nuclear membrane-(transport passageways for proteins) endoplasmic reticulum
contain hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion lysosomes
rigid, protective structure made of polysaccharides giving plant cells a box-like shape cell wall
inner membrane forms folds (cristae); site of energy production; powerhouse of the cell mitochondria (plural) mitochondrion (singular)
lipid bilayer enclosing all cells cell membrane
site of photosynthesis chloroplast
organized network of protein filaments that helps to maintain cell shape cytoskeleton
pigment that captures sunlight needed for photosynthesis chlorophyll
Process producing energy for the cell; occurs in mitochondria cellular respiration
process that produces food for cells having chlorophyll photosynthesis
simple sugar initially produced through photosynthesis; most simple sugar glucose C6-H12-O6
Energy from glucose is used to produce _____ which supplies the energy needs of cells ATP adenosine triphosphate
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
mRNA messengerRNA ribonucleic acid
form dense stacks called grana inside chloroplasts thylakoids
Austrian monk, Father of Genetics; studied pea plants Mendel (Gregor)
phylum containing all sponges porifera
All have nematocysts (stinging cells) cnidaria (cnidarians)
All water dwellers and sessile (immobile); collect food through flagellated choanocytes porifera
sea anemones, Portuguese man-o-war, jellyfish, hydra, corals cnidarians
produces ribosomes nucleolus
nematocysts stinging cells of cnidarians
phylum of flatworms platyhelminthes
Soft body covered by a thin mantle with a muscular foot and internal visceral mass... Molluscs
Many molluscs have a shell composed of___and secreted by the mantle calcium carbonate (CaCO3)and proteins
3 classes of molluscs Gastropods (slugs, snails) Cephalopods (squid, octopi, nautilus) Bivalves (clams, scallops, oysters)
tapeworms, flukes, and planaria platyhelminthes
phylum of segmented worms (having nephridia and blood vessels) annelida
earthworms and leeches annelids
phylum of roundworms (unsegmented) nematoda
hookworms and parasites causing trichinosis, river blindness, and elephantitis nematoda
most recently named phylum cycliophora
symbion pandora identified in 1995 living on mouth parts of Norwegian Lobster cycliophoran
traits are notochord, pharyngeal gill slits, post-anal tail, hollow dorsal nerve chord chordata
Subphyla are urochordata, cephalochordata, and vertebrata (true vertebrates) chordata
sea squirts urochordata
lancelets cephalochordata
mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles,fish are all in which phylum chordata
he saw cork (wood) cells and coined the term "cell" Robert Hooke
he was the first to see a living cell Anton Von Leeuwenhoek
cell division that occurs in 2 stages meiosis
cell division that produces 4 gametes with the n number of chromosomes. meiosis
general term for all sex cells gametes
term for initial fertilized egg zygote
cell that have the 'n' number of chromosomes; haploid cells gametes
cell resulting from fusion of gametes zygote
term that means having the 'n' number of chromosomes; 1/2 the total number of chromosomes haploid
term that means having the 2n number of chromosomes; having the 'total' number of chromosomes diploid
whip-like structure that grows out of a cell used for cell movement flagellum (singular) plural = flagella
tiny, short hair-like structures projecting from a cell body cilia (plural) cilium (singular)
4 nucleic acids which are the bases of DNA Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
How do the nucleic acids pair in DNA? A with T and C with G
Name the stages of mitosis in order P(P)MAT Prophase (Prometaphase) Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
Meiosis produces how many gametes? 4
Three types of symbiosis parasitism, commensalism, mutualism
Symbiotic relationship: one benefits, one is harmed parasitism
Symbiotic relationship: both benefit mutualism
Symbiotic relationship: one benefits, one is unaffected commensalism
Discrete units of genetic material (code for a particular protein) gene
All chromosomes are within the nucleus, but there is also ______________DNA, mtDNA, an exact copy of the mother's mtDNA. mitochondrial (DNA)
Forming mRNA from DNA inside the nucleus Transcription
Process of synthesizing a chain of amino acids to build a protein from mRNA Translation
Phylum of insects, crustaceans, and arachnids Arthropoda
Most Arthropods have this type of external skeleton exoskeleton
Lobster, crayfish, etc. are which subphylum of arthropods crustaceans
mRNA carries the DNA code for synthesizing one of these a protein
The section or segment of a DNA molecule that has the entire code for synthesizing a protein is a ___. gene
synthesis or synthesizing means ___. process of putting preexisting parts together (like the pieces of a puzzle)to build something, not creating something
Longest phase within the cell cycle; precedes mitosis Interphase
Phase of the cell cycle during which all growth and normal functioning of a cell occurs Interphase
porifera are sessile which means immobile
flagellated cells that collect food via sweeping motions for porifera choanocytes
most diverse and successful animal phylum arthropoda
jointed foot/feet arthropoda
body segments of insects head, thorax, abdomen
now extinct arthropod phylum trilobitomorpha (trilobites)
mollusc shell is secreted by the mantle
five-fold radial symmetry echinodermata
spiny skin echinodermata
sea urchin scraping device Aristotles's lantern
feeding adaptation of everting stomach echinodermata
moving by tube feet connected to the WVS echinodermata
most diverse SUBphylum vertebrata (true vertebrates)
Created by: gkarlish

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