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AP Bio Chapter 51

Behavioral Ecology

Behavioral Ecology Study of animal behavior
Behavior Everything an animal does and how it does it (a series of responses to changes in stimuli)
Proximate Questions "How" questions such as what stimuli impact the behavior or the anatomy and physiology behind the action
"Does the day length trigger courtship behaviors?" Proximate Question
Ultimate Questions "Why" questions, how the behavior is adaptive
"Why court at this time?" Ultimate Question
Ethology Study of behavior in nature
What is the evolutionary history? Ultimate question
How does it aid survival and reproduction? Ultimate question
Fixed Action Patterns Instinctual behavior initiated by a sign stimulus and generally carried to completion once initiated
Greyleg Goose Fixed action pattern
Three-spined Stickleback Fixed action pattern- attacks those with red bellies
Imprinting Forming a bond during a critical period
Innate Behavior Essentially constant for a species, strong genetic component
Signal Behavior that elicits a change in another
Communication Transmission, receptions, and response to a signal
Kinesis Simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus
Taxis Automatic, oriented movement toward or away from some stimulus
Trout Positive rheotaxis
Learning Modifying behavior through experience
Habituation Learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli
Spatial Learning Advanced learning with those aware of an environments spacial structure
Tinbergen's digger wasps Use landmarks- location indicators
Cognitive Maps Not only learning landmarks but the relationships between objects to reduce the amount of detail needed to relocate an item
Clark's nutcrackers Cognitive maps
Associative Learning Pairing one one stimulus with another
Classical conditioning Pairing an insignificant stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus until a connection is made and it becomes a conditioned stimulus
Pavlov's Dogs Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning Pairing behavior with reward or punishment
Skinner's rats Operant conditioning
Tic-Tac-Toe Chickens Operant conditioning
Cognition Ability to pick up information and process it
Cognitive Ethology Examines connection between an animal's nervous system and it's behavior
Optimal foraging strategy Optimizing nutrition while minimizing obtaining costs
Intrasexual Production Members of one sex selecting males based on trait of the other sex
Agnostic behavior Often reutilized contest/fight for resources
Nash's Game Theory Evaluating strategies where you must consider what strategies others are using
Side-blotched Lizards Game theory
Rock-paper-scissors Game theory
Altruism Acting in a way that benefits others
Prairie dog warnings Altruism
Inclusive Fitness Aiding those closely relating to you so that the genes you share can increase in the populations
Kin Selection Enhancing reproductive success of relatives
Reciprocal Altruism "I'll help you if you help me" in social groups
Social Learning Learning from others
Culture Information transfer via social learning or teaching
Mate choice copying Selecting a mate based on other females preferences
Sociobiology How has human behavior been shaped by natural selection
Pavlov Classical conditioning
BF Skinner Operant conditioning
Wilson Sociobiology
Tingergen Wasps and Sickleback fish
Lorenz Imprinting
Sign Stimulus Trigger fixed-action patterns
Receptors Prairie Vole Monogamy
Sexual Behavior Cooperation, Communication, Diminish ni aggression
Balanced polymorphism Marine Isopods
Created by: AliRutherford
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