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Pathology Ch.1

What does "pathology" mean? Scientific Study of disease
What is histopathology? Disgnosis of disease through tissue examination
What is Cytopathology? Diagnosis of disease through examination of separated cells
What is Chemical Pathology? Study of diseases regarding biochemical changes in tissue and body fluids
What is Forensic pathology? Application of pathology to legal purposes
What is toxicology? study of poisons and their effects
What is hematology? study of disorders of blood cells and coagulation proteins
What immunology? study of immune response in disease (specific defense mechanisms of the body)
What is microbiology? study of infectious diseases and responsible agents
What is genetics? study of abnormal chromosomes and genes
What is the formula for disease? Damage by a harmful agent + the body's reaction= DISEASE
What are three important broad groups of disease? 1. Inflammatory (including infections) 2. degenerative (excluding aging) 3. Neoplastic (tumors)
What are four components of Diagnostic Pathology? Biopsy, Cytology, Blood, Secretion and excretions
What is a biopsy? Examination of tissue samples from living patients
What are 3 different types of biopsies? Needle biopsy (using a wide pored cutting needle), Incisional biopsy (surgical incision), Endoscopic biopsy (visually guided instruments, e.g. gastroscope)
What is Cytology? Examination of scattered cells
What are 4 types of cytology? Fluid cytology (pleural effusion), washing cytology (bronchial washing for Lung cancer), fine-needle cytology (aspiration of solid tissue as breast mass), exfoliative cytology (scraped or brushed cells from epithelial surfaces as bronchus or cervix)
What are three parts of Blood? Blood cells (qualitative or quantitative), Plasma (coagulation), Serum (proteins, enzymes, biochemistry)
What is an example of secretion and excretions? Feces, urine, sputum
What are the 8 major characteristics applied of disease? Definition, Incidence (occurrence), Etiology (cause), Pathogenesis, Clinical features (symptoms and signs), Pathological lesion, Complications, Prognosis
What are 4 primary etiologies of disease? Infective agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites), Chemical agents, Physical agents (trauma, radiation, thermal), Genetic
What is a Pathognomonic abnormality? Any abnormality restricted to a single disease that is of diagnostic importance. E.g. Reed-Strenberg cell in Hodgkin's disease)
What is the definition of syndrome? Disease characterized by multiple findings i.e. Combination of lesions, signs and symptoms. e.g. Cushing's disease due to ACTH-sectreting pituitary tumors
What is the definition of prognosis? Forecast of the probable outcome of disease
In regards to etiology, what does primary mean? disease without evident cause (e.g. essential HTN)
In regards to etiology, what does secondary mean? disease secondary to or complication of some underlying cause (e.g. HTN secondary to renal artery stenosis)
In regards to tumors, what does primary mean? Initial site
In regards to tumors, what does secondary mean? tumor cells that disseminate producing secondary lesions in distant sites
Acute and chronic are used to describe what? the course of a disease
What does acute mean? rapid onset and short course
What does chronic mean? Insidious "gradual" onset and prolonged course
What does subacute mean? between acute and chronic
When used to describe tumors, what does benign mean? remain localized, rarely fatal
What used to describe tumors, what does malignant mean? invade and spread from original site, commonly fatal
What does the prefix Hyper- mean? above normal e.g. hyperglycemia
What does the prefix Hypo- mean? below normal e.g. hypoglycemia
What does the prefix Meta- mean? change from one state to another e.g. metaplasia
What does the suffix -itis mean? inflammation e.g. bronchitis
What does the suffix -oma mean? swelling (or tumor) e.g. fibroma
What does the suffix -oid mean? resembling e.g. rheumatoid disease
What does the suffix -plasia mean? disorder of growth e.g. neoplasia
What does the suffix -osis mean? state (or condition, process) e.g. Osteoarthrosis
What does the suffix -opthy mean? abnormality lacking specific characteristics e.g. lymphadenopathy
What are Eponymous names? Disease named after a person or place e.g. Hodgkin's disease, Crohn's disease, Paget's disease
What is an Iatrogenic disease? Disease induced by health care provider's words or actions e.g. penicillin causing an allergy, aspirin causing a gastric ulcer, radiation causing fetal abnormalities, blood transfusion transmitting AIDS or Hepatitis, adjustment causing a fracture.
Created by: courtney.marie23