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ENG 304 - Romantic

Romantic Movement quotes, authors, etc.

QuestionAnswer
“The Religions of all Nations are derived from each Nation’s different reception of the Poetic Genius, which is every where call’d the Spirit of Prophecy.” • William Blake All Religions Are One • Series of philosophical aphorisms (brief statement of a principal) • Written 1788 • Poetic Genius: A capacity for imaginative vision that makes up the True Man and is universal among human beings
William Blake 1757-1827 radical religious, moral, and political opinions
Antiquarianism William Blake an interest in the culture of antiquity, especially that of classical Greece and Rome
illuminated printing William Blake’s style of printing by ink plates
“Application: He who sees the Infinite in all things sees God. He who sees the Ratio only sees himself.” William Blake • There Is No Natural Religion • Series of philosophical aphorisms • Written 1788 • Ratio: Reason; Abstract image or ghost of an object
“I’ll shade him from the heat until he can bear To lean in joy upon our father’s knee. An then I’ll stand and stroke his silver hair, And be like him, and he will then love me.” William Blake • “The Little Black Boy” • A piece found in Songs of Innocence and Experience • Heroic quatrains (Iambic pentameter; ABAB)
“For Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love, Is God, our father dear: And Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love, Is Man, his child and care.” William Blake • “The Divine Image” • Mercy, Pity, Peace, Love: Virtues of delight- These virtues live within all humanity, and we all worship them as our God • Ballad stanza: Quatrains of alternating tetrameter and trimester; ABCB
“What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?” William Blake• “The Tyger” • Regular, rhythmic meter • Quatrains made up of rhymed couplets William Blake• The poem in its entirety ponders the possibility of a divine creator
“And I saw it was filled with graves, And tomb-stones where flowers should be; And priests in black gowns were walking their rounds, And binding with briars my joys and desires.” William Blake “The Garden of Love” • Organized religion represses sexuality, which should be considered natural • The garden – natural love; sexuality; desire William Blake• Graves, priests, briars – organized religion infiltrating and binding the g
“In every cry of every Man, In every Infant’s cry of fear, In every voice, in every ban, The mind-forg’d manacles I hear:” William Blake • “London” • Alternately rhyming quatrains • There is fear and repression in everyone thanks to society’s and religion’s constraints
“And the hapless Soldier’s sigh Runs in blood down Palace walls.” William Blake • “London” • Alternately rhyming quatrains • The monarchy, symbolized by the image of a palace, which in itself symbolizes government, represses people’s natural state and causes pain and death.
William Wordsworth 1770-1850
Imagination William Wordsworth - colors our understanding of the mundane; transforming power that presents the usual in a unusual light
pan-psychism William Wordsworth all matter has consciousness
pantheism William Wordsworth - identifies the Deity with all the universe and its phenomena; belief in and worship of all gods
Platonism William Wordsworth, Percy Shelley - asserts idealistic forms as an absolute and eternal reality of which the phenomena of the world are an imperfect reflection
Lake District area in which Wordsworth spent much time and which inspired many of his writings
“These beauteous forms, ………………………….. I have owed to them In hours of weariness, sensations sweet, Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart; And passing even into my purer mind, With tranquil restoration. . . .” William Wordsworth • “Tintern Abbey” • The beautiful sights raise memories that stir his soul
“For I have learned To look on nature, not as in the hour Of thoughtless youth; but as hearing oftentimes The still, sad music of humanity,” William Wordsworth • “Tintern Abbey” • A more mature view of nature; when he used to look at this place, it didn’t strike him all that profoundly, but now it does.
“And I have felt A presence that disturbs me with the joy Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime Of something far more interfused, Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns,” William Wordsworth• “Tintern Abbey” • Hints of the oversoul; this presence resides in all of nature and inspires his poetic thoughts, his imagination
“The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse, The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul Of all my moral being.” William Wordsworth • “Tintern Abbey” • Nature nurses, guides, and guards the speaker’s values
“Knowing that Nature never did betray The heart that loved her; ‘tis her privilege, Through all the years of this, our life, to lead From joy to joy. . . .” William Wordsworth • “Tintern Abbey” • Nature is a source of joy to those that seek that joy
“The object was to choose incidents and situations from common life,in a selection of language really used by men; and…to throw over them a certain colouring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual way” William Wordsworth • Preface to Lyrical Ballads • Written 1800 • Manifesto for the Romantic Movement
“poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: emotion recollected in tranquillity: an emotion, kindred to that which was before the subject of contemplation, is gradually produced, and does itself actually exist in the mind.” William Wordsworth • Preface to Lyrical Ballads • Written 1800 • Manifesto for the Romantic Movement • Definition of poetry
“The Child is father to the Man.” William Wordsworth • “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” and “My Heart Leaps Up” • “My Heart Leaps Up” Written 1802 • The child in every person teaches him to appreciate nature, beginning with simple beauty.
“There was a time when meadow, grove, and stream, The earth, and every common sight, To me did seem Apparelled in celestial light, The glory and the freshness of a dream.” William Wordsworth • “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” • Written 1803-1806 • Speaker has become somewhat disillusioned with the glories of nature, perhaps in part due to the Industrial Revolution
”Not in entire forgetfulness, And not in utter nakedness, But trailing clouds of glory do we come From God, who is our home:” William Wordsworth • “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” • Written 1803-1806 • Idea that the soul is immortal; our soul had its beginnings before birth and only continues in Earthly life
“Our souls have sight of that immortal sea Which brought us hither, Can in a moment travel thither, And see the children sport upon the shore, And hear the mighty waters rolling evermore.” William Wordsworth • “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” • Written 1803-1806 • While on Earth, we feel a constant pull within our souls toward the world of immortality.
“Be now for ever taken from my sight, Though nothing can bring back the hour Of splendour in the grass, of glory in the flower;” William Wordsworth • “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” • Written 1803-1806 • His disillusionment with life will give way to a greater understanding.
“To me the meanest flower that blows can give Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears.” William Wordsworth• “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” • Written 1803-1806 • Nature has a powerful way of inspiring deep, philosophical thoughts.
“Earth has not any thing to show more fair: Dull would he be of soul who could pass by A sight so touching in its majesty:” William Wordsworth • “Composed Upon Westminster Bridge” • Written 1802 • Any sharp soul should be moved by the beauty of the described image.
“Listen! The mighty Being is awake, And doth with his eternal motion make A sound like thunder—everlastingly.” William Wordsworth • “It is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free” • The Being: God, present in nature always, not necessarily Christian
“Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers: Little we see in Nature that is ours; We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!” William Wordsworth • “The World is Too Much With Us” • Written 1807 • We are too caught up in the material and society’s rituals to be moved by the power of nature.
“The power which all Acknowledge when thus moved, which Nature thus To bodily sense exhibits, is the express Resemblance of that glorious faculty That higher minds bear with them as their own.” William Wordsworth • Book Fourteenth (Conclusion) • Nature has the power to move the soul, and higher minds learn to use this power on their own in the form of imagination.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1772-1834
pantisocracy Samuel Taylor Coleridge a community in which all rule equally; the name of a utopian community which Coleridge helped found in Pennsylvania which was quickly abandoned
German philosophers Coleridge Coleridge lived in and was fascinated by German culture; Immanuel Kant’s transcendental idealism
laudanum Coleridge drug mixture of alcohol and opium with which Coleridge was treated and to which he became addicted
Highgate Coleridge Coleridge lived here with Dr. Gillman to try to get over opium addiction; many notable people have resided here
Fancy Coleridge - more casual and superficial than conscious imagination
Primary Imagination Coleridge the ideal creation; lives within all nature and human beings
Secondary Imagination Coleridge Less ideal than primary; the translation of the primary imagination into physical form like poetry or art
“Like some coy maid half yielding to her lover, It pours such sweet upbraiding, as must needs Tempt to repeat the wrong!” Coleridge • “The Aeolian Harp” • The wind-harp only lets the wind play a little at a time.
“It cracked and growled, and roared and howled, Like noises in a swound!” Coleridge • “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”
“The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, The furrow followed free; We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea.” Coleridge • “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” • The breeze was blowing, the sea foamy—deceivingly. Once upon the ocean, they were stuck, with no wind to push their ship.
“Her lips were red, her face was free, Her locks were yellow as gold: Her skin was as white as leprosy, The Nightmare Life-in-Death was she, Who thicks man’s blood with cold.” Coleridge • “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” • A vision of death, described before it took its toll on the ship’s inhabitants.
“A spring of love gushed from my heart, And I blessed them unaware: Sure my saint took pity on me, And I blessed them unaware.” Coleridge • “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” • Turning point in which the speaker finds a love for nature and the wrongs are righted.
“He prayeth best, who loveth best All things great and small; For the dear God who loveth us, He made and loveth all.” Coleridge • “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” • The mariner learns to love nature.
“A savage place! As holy and enchanted As e’er beneath a waning moon was haunted By woman wailing for her demon-lover!” Coleridge • “Kubla Khan” • Imagined setting
“That with music loud and long, I would build that dome in air, That sunny dome! Those caves of ice!” Coleridge • “Kubla Khan” • The speaker wishes to recreate his dream-vision, but knows that he cannot do so with the same perfection as the experience itself (primary vs. secondary imagination)
“For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise” Coleridge • “Kubla Khan” • This god-like description could belong to the speaker if only he were able to satisfactorily translate his experiences into art, but he knows that he cannot (primary vs. secondary imagination; poet as bard/prophet)
“For I was reared In the great city, pent ‘mid cloisters dim, And saw naught lovely but the sky and stars. But thou, my babe! shalt wander like a breeze By lakes and sandy shores. . . .” Coleridge• “Frost at Midnight” • Speaker’s hope that his newborn child will experience an upbringing in nature, unbridled by society and city-life.
“Hence, viper thoughts, that coil around my mind, Reality’s dark dream! I turn from you, and listen to the wind, Which long has raved unnoticed.” Coleridge • “Dejection: An Ode” • Speaker hopes to listen to the wind in order to escape his dejection, but finds sorrow within that sound as well. Dejection is just another element of nature with which we must come to terms.
George Gordon, Lord Byron 1788-1824 Forced by scandal to leave England in 1816
Byronic Hero Byron mixed hero/villain; rejects authority/society; loner, etc
weltschmertz Byron Sorrow or sadness over the present or future evils or woes of the world in general; sentimental pessimism
18th Century satire Byron the observer and the observed; the regulation of desire; satire as a fragile mode; comparisons
Spenserian Stanza Byron 9-line stanzas; hexameter; ababbcbcc
ottava rima Byron stanza with 8 lines, iambic pentameter, abababcc
“Once more upon the waters! Yet once more! And the waves bound beneath me as a steed That knows his rider. Welcome to their roar!” Byron • “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” • Speaker is more comfortable separated from the society, e.g. on the sea.
“’Tis to create, and in creating live A being more intense, that we endow With form our fancy, gaining as we give The life we image, even as I do now.” Byron • “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” • Using imagination to create is the essence of being an intense human soul.
“And life’s enchanted cup but sparkles near the brim. His had been quaff’d too quickly, and he found The dregs were wormwood. . . .” Byron • “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” • The youthful Childe Harold’s life is cut short, and at the end is sorrow and misery.
“”I have not loved the world, nor the world me; I have not flattered its rank breath, nor bow’d To its idolatries a patient knee,--“ Byron • “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” • Speaker separates himself from the world. He is a loner. He is a Byronic hero.
“I want a hero: an uncommon want, When every year and month sends forth a new one, Till, after cloying the gazettes with cant, The age discovers he is not the true one;” Byron • “Don Juan” • Commentary on mankind’s fickle flit between one idolized “hero” to the next, when they are not heroes in truth
“She knew her Latin—that is, ‘the Lord’s prayer,’ And Greek—the alphabet—I’m nearly sure; She read some French romances here and there,” Byron • “Don Juan” • Description of the love of language present with Donna Julia
“I’m a plain man, and in a single station, But—Oh! Ye lords of ladies intellectual, Inform us truly, have they not hen-peck’d you all?” Byron • “Don Juan” • Commentary on the ridiculousness of uneducated, wealthy men marrying much more well educated ladies
Percy Shelley 1792-1822 "A bright and ineffectual angel" Bounced from Oxford for writing The Necessity of Atheism
Neoplatonism Percy Shelley based on Platonism with elements of mysticism and some Judaic and Christian concepts and posits a single source from which all existence emanates and with which an individual soul can be mystically united
Harriet Westbrook Percy Shelley first wife of Shelley, whom he deserted
skepticism Percy Shelley true knowledge is impossible; all knowledge is uncertain; tendency toward doubt
materialism Percy Shelley theory that physical matter is the only reality and that everything, including thought, feeling, mind, and will, can be explained in terms of matter and physical phenomena
pastoral elegy Percy Shelley subgroup of pastoral poetry featuring death
“Nothing beside remains. Round the decay Of that colossal Wreck, boundless and bare The lone and level sands stretch far away.” Percy Shelley • “Ozymandias” • Written 1818 • The entire poem describes a scene in which the grandeur of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses has declined in modern day. This is perhaps the most poignant part due to its bluntness.
“An old, mad, blind, despised, and dying King; Princes, the dregs of their dull race, who flow Through public scorn,--mud from a muddy spring;” Percy Shelley • “England in 1819” • Written 1819 • The poem passionately attacks England's, as the poet sees it, decadent, oppressive ruling class • King is George III • Poem is a response to the Peterloo Massacre
“Wild Spirit, which art moving everywhere; Destroyer and Preserver; hear, O hear!” Percy Shelley • “Ode to the West Wind” • These two lines complete the first section of the poem, an address/appeal to the West Wind
“Drive my dead thoughts over the universe Like withered leaves to quicken a new birth!” Percy Shelley • “Ode to the West Wind” • Found in final section of the poem • Idea of reincarnation; once dead, we are reborn in nature, and wind is the spirit that carries us
“The trumpet of a prophecy! O Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?” Percy Shelley • “Ode to the West Wind” • Found in final section of the poem—final lines • Upon death, we are sure to be reborn
“Teach me half the gladness That thy brain must know, Such harmonious madness From my lips would flow The world should listen then—as I am listening now.” Percy Shelley • “To a Skylark” • Plea from speaker to skylark to learn how to feel such joy as the bird sings of
“He is made one with nature: there is heard His voice in all her music, from the moan Of thunder, to the song of night’s sweet bird;” Percy Shelley • “Adonais” • One of the supports for the idea that Keats (for whom the elegy was written) lives on forever. In this case, through his incorporation into the natural world
“He is a portion of the loveliness Which once he made more lovely: he doth bear His part, while the one Spirit’s plastic stress Sweeps through the dull dense world. . . .” Percy Shelley • “Adonais” • Another of the supports for the idea that Keats lives on forever. In this case, his artistic contributions live on
“The One remains, the many change and pass; Heaven’s light forever shines, Earth’s shadows fly; Life, like a dome of many-coloured glass, Stains the white radiance of Eternity, Until Death tramples it to fragments.” Percy Shelley • “Adonais” • Intimations of the oversoul • The One: oversoul • The many: all Earthly spirits • Through death, we all pass into a greater state of being
John Keats 1795-1821 "Poet of sensuous beauty"
Negative Capability Keats when man is capable of being in uncertainties, Mysteries, doubts without any irritable reaching after fact & reason
Epic Keats lengthy narrative poem focusing on the heroic
Fanny Brawne was engaged to Keats, who died before they could marry
Consumption Keats old name for tuberculosis, of which Keats died
“The felt I like some watcher of the skies When a new planet swims into his ken;” Keats • “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” • Written 1816 • Turning point in the poem, in which the speaker grasps the significance of Homer and his travels
“So do these wonders a most dizzy pain, That mingles Grecian grandeur with the rude Wasting of old time—“ Keats • “On Seeing the Elgin Marbles” • A sort of metaphor on human feelings toward mortality and afterlife: Partly with amazement, partly with dread
“And this is why I sojourn here, Alone and palely loitering, Though the sedge is withered from the lake, And no birds sing.” Keats • “La Belle Dame sans Merci” • Final stanza of the piece, in which the speaker (knight) answers that he is found where he is because he has just awakened from his state of ecstasy with “la belle dame sans merci”
“’Tis not through envy of thy happy lot, But being too happy in thine happiness—“ Keats • “Ode to a Nightingale” • Simple joy of listening to a nightingale.
“O for a beaker full of the warm South, ………………………. That I might drink, and leave the world unseen, And with thee fade away into the forest dim.” Keats • “Ode to a Nightingale” • Speaker desires to drink enough to forget his troubles and just enjoy the happiness that comes with listening to the nightingale
“Fade far away, dissolve, and quite forget What thou among the leaves hast never known,” Keats • “Ode to a Nightingale” • Speaker wants to forget all of his troubles, perhaps by drinking, and notes that the nightingale has never experienced such troubles
“Away! Away! For I will fly to thee, Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards, But on the viewless wings of Poesy, Though the dull brain perplexes and retards:” Keats • “Ode to a Nightingale” • Bacchus: God of Wine, Partying • Speaker will join the nightingale in its happiness not through drinking, as was suggested earlier in the piece, but instead through poetry
”Darkling I listen; and, for many a time I have been half in love with easeful Death,” Keats • “Ode to a Nightingale” • The speaker is troubled, but feels better when listening to the nightingale. So he is half in love with death because now, listening to the nightingale, he could die happy
“The same that oft-times hath Charm’d magic casements, opening on the foam Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn.” Keats • “Ode to a Nightingale” • Second two lines some of the most famous of the Romantic movement • “The same” is the song of the nightingale, which has been sung throughout the ages
“Was it a vision, or a waking dream? Fled is that music:--Do I wake or sleep?” Keats • “Ode to a Nightingale” • Final lines • Speaker comes back to reality after the nightingale flies away
“Thou still unravish’d bride of quietness, Thou foster-child of silence and slow time, Sylvan historian, who canst thus express A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:” Keats • “Ode on a Grecian Urn” • Description of the urn itself, not of the depictions on it.
“Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard Are sweeter. . . .” Keats • “Ode on a Grecian Urn” • The urn depicts musicians, and the speaker thinks the visual is sweeter than real music could be.
“Ah, happy, happy boughs! That cannot shed Your leaves, nor ever bid the spring adieu;” Keats Ode on a Grecian Urn” • The trees depicted on the urn are happy because they are frozen in time—no harm can befall them; they do not have to face the cold seasons and lose their leaves.
“Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral!” Keats • “Ode on a Grecian Urn” • Direct address to the urn itself; not to depictions
“’Beauty is truth, truth beauty,’—that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.” Keats • “Ode on a Grecian Urn” • Final lines • Numerous interpretations—no one really knows what these lines are supposed to mean • No one is sure where the quote came from, or if it even is a real quote
“She dwells in Beauty—Beauty that must die; And Joy, whose hand is ever at his lips Bidding adieu; and aching Pleasure nigh, Turning to poison while the bee-mouth sips:” Keats • “Ode on Melancholy” • Melancholy is here personified as “she” • Author does not find melancholy totally unattractive
“Veil’d Melancholy has her sovran shrine, Though seen of none save him whose strenuous tongue Can burst Joy’s grape against his palate fine;” Keats • “Ode on Melancholy” • Melancholy personified • Melancholy’s shrine is located in the temple of Delight—as in, when people feel delight, they are bound to feel melancholy when the delight is gone
“Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;” Keats • “To Autumn” • Description of autumn
“Where are the songs of spring? Ay, where are they? Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,--“ Keats • “To Autumn” • Autumn doesn’t have to be jealous of spring—they each have their own beauty
Lyrical Ballads William Wordsworth Pub. 1798
Biographia Literaria Coleridge Pub. 1817
George III Died 1820
Songs of Innocence William Blake Pub. 1789
Songs of Innocence and of Experience William Blake Pub. 1794
English Sonnet 14 lines (3 quatrains, 1 couplet) Iambic pentameter, ababcdcdefefgg
Italian Sonnet 14 lines (Octave and Sestet), Volta (turn) around 9th line, abbaabbacdecde
Ode Lyrical verse written in praise of or dedicated to someone or something
Ballad Stanza Quatrain with alternating tetrameter and trimeter; abcb Ex: "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" Coleridge
Terza Rima 3-line stanzas using chain rhyme (aba, bcb, cdc...)
Metonymy Representation by the use of something intimately related to the person/object EX: "the white house" for president
Created by: prisms