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postpartum 1

QuestionAnswer
RDS-Respiratory Distress Syndrome A result of immature lungs and a lack of surfactant—leads to decreased gas exchange. S&S several hours after birth—grunting, tachypnea, retractions, and nasal flaring
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Occurs in infants with immature lungs who have been on mechanical ventilation and high concentrations of oxygen. Results in atelectasis, edema and a stiffening of the membranes in the lungs and airway
Poor control of body temp lack brown fat, lg surface area, lose excessive heat, immature theroregulatory center, inable to shiver, inactive, high metabolic rate
Kangaroo Care skin to skin contact-placed directly on mom/dad's chest-helps calm, keep warm and promotes bonding
Before 34 weeks hard time coordinating sucking, swallowing, and breathing
Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) An acute inflammation of the bowel that leads to necrosis-due to hypoxia and decreased blood supply to the bowel.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) rerolental fibroplasia) eye matures at 34 weeks. Can cause retinal detachment--caused by high blood levels of 02.
PT-Immature kidneys prone to dehydration and edema, electrolyte imbalance.
hemolytic diseases babies RBC are being broken down. jaundice occurs in the 1st 24hrs
hyperbilirubenemia jaundice with hemolytic disease
hypoglycemia insuffient store of glycogen and fat. plasma glucose levels <40mg/dl. weak cry, tremor, lethargy, convulsion.
hydrocephalus Increase of cerebrospinal fluid with the ventricles of the brain, causes increased ICP and increased head size.
S &S of hydrocephalus Increased head size, shiny scalp, veins dialted. sunset eyes (sclera seen above iris/pupils) shrill, high pitched cry, convulsions.
transillumination shine a light to the head to see the extra fluid. it will turn red
Spina bifida imperfect closure of the spinal veretbrae-neuro tube defects
Spina Bifida Cystica Cystic mass in the midline of the spine
Meningocele contains a portion of membranes and CSF pocket/membrane protruding out, lump on back
Meninigomyelocele contains membranes, spinal cord
Habilitation to minimize the child's disability-with meningomyelocele there may be paralysis, loss of bowel and bladder control
Cleft Lip and Palate slight to severe, repaired at 3 months, palate repaired 12-18 months. long term dental and speech problems after repair.
Hip Dysplasia head of the femur is partly or completely displaced as a result of shallow acetabulum (hip socket)
Barlow's test when hips are adducted and extends the hips the examiner may feel the dislocation of the femur
Ortolani's sign abducting the thighs and applying gentle pressure forward over the greater trochanter produces a 'clunk"
Pavlik harness 1-6month hips in position of flexion and abduction
Spica cast thorax down the legs, the whole torso
talipes equinovarus foot that is turned inward
Erythroblastosis Fetalis severe hemolytic reaction-causes severe anemia, cadiac decompensation, edema, acites, hypoxia, and possible fetal death.
Pathologic Jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia) caused by anythiing that causes massive breakdown of red blood cells. occurs in 24hr after birth.
Phototherapy may be used to reduce serum bilirubin levels. under flouescent light, cover eyes and external genetalia in boys.
Treatment of Hemolytic disease may receive an exchange blood transfusion
Down Syndrome/trisomy 21 most common genetic disorder. close eyes, round face, protruding tongue, mental retardation, limp flaccid posture.
PKU- phenylketonuria autosomal recessive trait=among sexes. deficiency of the lack of the enzyme phenyalanine cannot convert to tyrosine and phylalanine accumulates in the blood. SEVERE retardation
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) causes elevation of leucine, isoleucine and valine result in acidosis, cerebral degeneration and death if not treated within 2 wks.---Diet low in branch chain amino-acids
metabolic disorder: Galactosemia autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism. Deficiency in glactokinase.
Galactosemia effects if untreated cataracts, mental retardation and cirrhosis of the liver
Preterm <38 weeks
Post term >42 weeks
SGA below 10th% regardless of gestation
LGA weight above the 90th%
IUGR growth retardation- not growing properly
possible causes of preterm birth illness in the mother, placenta previa, smoking, drug abuse
Preterm Physical Characteristics thin and transparent skin, blood vessel are visible, lanugo (fine hair) covers the shoulders, arms and forehead, a lot of vernix caseosa. few creases on soles of the feet
Preterm problems with Infants immature alveoli of the lungs, weak, undeveloped muscles in the chest, weak, immature cough adn gag reflex, deficient amount of surfactant
Moro reflex Newborn strightens arms and hands outward while the knees flex. When the newborn is startled by a loud noise or lifted slightly above the crib. Fingers form a C.
Grasping reflex newborn grasps and holds the object or finger firmly. When newborns palm is stimulated. (lessens at 3 to 4 months)
Rooting reflex Newborn turns head to the side and opens the lips to suck. When newborns mouth or cheek is touched.
Sucking reflex when an object is placed in newborns mouth or lips.
Babinski reflex fanning and hyperextension of all the toes; when the bottom of the foot is stroked from the heel upward across the ball of the foot.
Trunk incurvation stroking of the spine causes the pelvis to turn to the stimulated side.
Stepping reflex when held up, and newborns foot touches the ground, the other foot raises in a stepping motion.
Afterpains Cramping pain after childbirth, caused by alternating relaxation and contraction of uterine muscles.
Atony Absence or lack of usual muscle tone.
Attachment Development of strong affectional ties as a result of interaction between an infant and a significant other.
Bonding Development of a strong emotional tie of a parent to a newborn. Also called claiming or binding in.
Catabolism A process that converts living cells into simpler compounds. Involved in involution (normal changes) of the uterus after childbirth.
Decidua The endometrium during pregnancy. All except the deepest layer is shed after childbirth.
Diastasis recti Separation of the longitudinal muscles of the abdomen (rectus abdominis) during pregnancy.
Dyspareunia Difficult or painful coitus in women.
En face Position that allows eye-to-eye contact between the newborn and a parent.
Engorgement Swelling of the breasts resulting from increased blood flow, edema, and the presence of milk.
Engrossment Intense fascination and close face-to-face observation between father and newborn.
Entrainment Newborn movement in rhythm with adult speech, particularly high-pitched tones, which are more easily heard.
Episiotomy Surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening.
Fingertipping First tactile (touch) experience between mother and newborn. The mother explores the infant's body with her fingertips only.
Fourth trimester First 12 weeks after birth, a time of transition for parents and siblings.
Fundus Part of the uterus that is farthest from the cervix, above the openings of the fallopian tubes.
Involution Retrogressive changes that return the reproductive organs, particularly the uterus, to their nonpregnant size and condition.
Kegel exercises Alternate contracting and relaxing of the pelvic floor muscles to strengthen them.
Lactation Secretion of milk from the breasts. Also describes the period of time of breastfeeding.
Letting-go A phase of maternal adaptation that involves relinquishing previous roles and assuming a new role as a parent.
Lochia alba White, cream-colored, or light yellow vaginal discharge that follows lochia serosa.
Lochia rubra Red vaginal discharge that occurs immediately after childbirth; composed mostly of blood.
Lochia serosa Pink or brown-tinged vaginal discharge that follows lochia rubra; composed largely of serous exudate, blood, and leukocytes.
Milk-ejection reflex Release of milk from the alveoli into the ducts. Also called the letdown reflex.
Oxytocin Posterior pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions and the milk-ejection reflex. Also prepared synthetically.
Postpartum blues Temporary, self-limited period of weepiness experienced by many new others beginning in the 1st week after childbirth.
Prolactin Anterior pituitary hormone that promotes growth of breast tissue and stimulates production of milk.
Puerperium Period from the end of childbirth until involution of the reproductive organs is complete, approximately 6 weeks.
Reciprocal bonding behaviors Repertoire of infant behaviors that promotes attachment between parent and newborn.
REEDA Acronym for redness, ecchymosis, edema, discharge, and approximation. Useful for assessing wound healing or the presence of inflammation or infection.
Sibling rivalry Feelings of jealousy and fear of replacement when a young child must share parental attention with a newborn infant.
Subinvolution Delayed return of the uterus to its nonpregnant size and consistency.
Taking-hold Second phase of maternal adaptation, during which the mother assumes control of her own care and initiates care of the infant.
Taking-in First phase of maternal adaptation, during which the mother passively accepts care and comfort and details about the newborn.
Acrocyanosis Bluish discoloration of the hands and feet caused by reduced peripheral circulation.
Asphyxia Insufficient oxygen and excess carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues.
Bilirubin Unusable component of hemolyzed (broken down) erythrocytes.
Brown fat (or brown adipose tissue) Highly vascular specialized fat found in the newborn that provides more heat than other fat when metabolized.
Café au lait spots Light brown birthmarks.
Caput succedaneum Area of edema over the presenting part of the fetus or newborn, resulting from pressure against the cervix. Often called simply "caput."
Cephalhematoma Bleeding between the periosteum and skull from pressure during birth; does not cross suture lines.
Choanal atresia Abnormality of the nasal septum that obstructs one or both nasal passages.
Chordee Ventral curvature of the penis.
Craniosynostosis Premature closure of the sutures of the infant's head.
Cryptorchidism Failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum.
Epispadias Abnormal placement of the urinary meatus on the dorsal side of the penis.
Erythema toxicum Benign rash of unknown cause in newborns, with blotchy red areas that may have white or yellow papules or vesicles in the center.
Fetal lung fluid Fluid that fills the fetal lungs, expanding the alveoli and promoting lung development.
First period of reactivity Period beginning at birth in which newborns are active and alert. It ends when the infant first falls asleep.
Hyperbilirubinemia Excessive amount of bilirubin in the blood.
Hypospadias Abnormal placement of the urinary meatus on the ventral side of the penis.
Jaundice Yellow discoloration of the skin and sclera caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood; also called icterus.
Lanugo Fine, soft hair covering the fetus.
Milia White cysts, 1 to 2 mm in size, from distended sebaceous glands.
Molding Shaping of the fetal head during movement through the birth canal.
Mongolian spots Bruiselike marks that occur mostly in newborns with dark skin tones.
Neutral thermal environment Environment in which body temperature is maintained without an increase in metabolic rate or oxygen use.
Nevus simplex (salmon patch stork bites, telangiectatic nevi), Flat, pink areas on the nape of the neck, forehead, or eyelids resulting from dilation of the capillaries.
Nevus flammeus Permanent purple birthmark; also called portwine stain.
Nevus vasculosus Rough, red collection of capillaries with a raised surface that disappears with time. Also called strawberry hemangioma.
Nonshivering thermogenesis Process of heat production, without shivering, by oxidation of brown fat.
Periodic breathing Cessation of breathing lasting 5 to 10 seconds followed by 10 to 15 seconds of rapid respirations without changes in color or heart rate.
Point of maximum impulse Area of the chest in which the heart sounds are loudest when auscultated.
Polycythemia Abnormally high number of erythrocytes.
Polydactyly More than 10 digits on the hands or feet.
Pseudomenstruation Vaginal bleeding in the newborn, resulting from withdrawal of placental hormones.
Second period of reactivity Period after the first sleep following birth when the newborn may have an elevated pulse and respiratory rate and excessive mucus.
Strabismus A turning inward ("crossing") or outward of the eyes caused by poor tone in the muscles that control eye movement.
Surfactant Combination of lipoproteins produced by the lungs of the mature fetus to reduce surface tension in the alveoli, thus promoting lung expansion after birth.
Syndactyly Webbing between fingers or toes.
Tachypnea Respiratory rate greater than 60 breaths per minute in the newborn after the first hour of life.
Thermogenesis Heat production.
Thermoregulation Maintenance of body temperature.
Vernix caseosa Thick, white substance that protect
Hyperbilirubinemia Excessive amount of bilirubin in the blood.
Jaundice Yellow discoloration of the skin and sclera caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood.
Ophthalmia neonatorum Severe conjunctivitis in the newborn often caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia infection in the mother. May cause blindness.
Plagiocephaly Flattening or asymmetry of the head
Prepuce Fold of skin covering the glans penis; foreskin; may be removed by circumcision.
Thermoregulation Maintenance of body temperature.
Colostrum Breast fluid secreted during pregnancy and the first 7 to 10 days after childbirth.
Engorgement Swelling of the breasts that occurs when milk begins to be produced.
Foremilk First breast milk received in a feeding.
Hindmilk Breast milk received near the end of a feeding; contains higher fat content than foremilk.
Latch-on Attachment of the infant to the breast.
Let-down reflex See milk-ejection reflex.
Mastitis Inflammation of the breast, usually caused by engorgement with stasis of milk in the ducts or by infection.
Mature milk Breast milk that appears after the first 2 weeks of lactation.
Milk-ejection reflex Release of milk from the alveoli into the ducts; also known as the let-down reflex.
Nonnutritive sucking Sucking during which little or no milk flow is obtained or with an object such as a pacifier or finger.
Nutritive suckling or sucking Steady, rhythmic suckling at the breast or sucking at a bottle to obtain milk.
Oxytocin Hormone produced by the posterior pituitary gland that stimulates uterine contractions and the milk-ejection reflex; also prepared synthetically.
Prolactin Anterior pituitary hormone that promotes growth of breast tissue and stimulates production of milk.
Suckling Giving or taking nourishment from the breast. Sometimes used interchangeably with sucking, which refers to drawing into the mouth with a partial vacuum, as with a bottle or pacifier.
Transitional milk Breast milk that appears between secretion of colostrum and mature milk.
Atony Absence or lack of usual muscle tone.
Dilation and curettage (D&C) Stretching of the cervical os to permit suctioning or scraping of the walls of the uterus. The procedure is performed to obtain samples of uterine lining tissue for laboratory examination, during the postpartum period to remove retained placental fragment
Embolus A mass that may be composed of a thrombus (blood clot) or amniotic fluid released into the bloodstream to cause obstruction of pulmonary vessels.
Hematoma Localized collection of blood in a space or tissue.
Hydramnios Excess volume of amniotic fluid (more than 2000 ml at term). Also called polyhydramnios.
Hypovolemia Abnormally decreased volume of circulating fluid in the body.
Hypovolemic shock Acute peripheral circulatory failure caused by loss of circulating blood volume.
Mastitis Infection of the breast.
Metritis Infection of the decidua, myometrium, and parametrial tissues of the uterus.
Placenta accreta Placenta that is abnormally adherent to the uterine wall. If the condition is more advanced, it is called placenta increta (the placenta extends into the uterine muscle) or placenta percreta (the placenta extends through the uterine muscle).
Psychosis Mental state in which a person's ability to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others is impaired.
Subinvolution Slower than expected return of the uterus to its nonpregnancy size after childbirth.
Thrombus Collection of blood factors, primarily platelets and fibrin, that may cause vascular obstruction.
Apneic spells Cessation of breathing for more than 20 seconds, or accompanied by cyanosis or bradycardia.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Chronic pulmonary condition in which damage to the infant's lungs requires prolonged dependence on supplemental oxygen. Also called chronic lung disease.
Compliance Stretchability or elasticity of the lungs and thorax that allows distention without resistance during respirations.
Containment A method of increasing comfort in infants by swaddling or other methods to keep the extremities in a flexed position near the body.
Corrected gestational age Gestational age that a preterm infant would be if still in utero. May also be called developmental age.
Enteral feeding Nutrients supplied to the gastrointestinal tract orally or by feeding tube.
Extremely low-birth-weight infant An infant weighing 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz) or less at birth.
Intrauterine growth restriction Failure of a fetus to grow as expected for gestational age.
Large-for-gestational-age infant An infant whose size is above the 90th percentile for gestational age.
Low-birth-weight infant Infant whose weight is less than 2500 g (5 lb, 8 oz) at birth.
Macrosomia Infant birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age. Some sources use weight more than 4000 g (8 lb, 13 oz) or 4500 g (9 lb, 15 oz).
Minimal enteral nutrition Very small feedings designed to help the gastrointestinal tract mature. Also called trophic feedings.
Necrotizing enterocolitis Serious inflammatory condition of the intestines.
Noncompliance Resistance of the lungs and thorax to distention with air during respirations.
Parenteral nutrition Intravenous infusion of all nutrients known to be needed for metabolism and growth.
Periodic breathing Cessation of breathing lasting 5 to 10 seconds followed by 10 to 15 seconds of rapid respirations without changes in color or heart rate.
Periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Bleeding around and into the ventricles of the brain.
Postmaturity syndrome Condition in which a postterm infant shows characteristics indicative of poor placental functioning before birth. Also called dysmaturity syndrome.
Postterm infant An infant born after 42 weeks of gestation.
Preterm infant An infant born before the beginning of the 38th week of gestation. Also called premature infant.
Pulse oximetry Method of determining the level of blood oxygen saturation by sensors attached to the skin.
Respiratory distress syndrome Condition caused by insufficient production of surfactant in the lungs; results in atelectasis, hypoxia, and hypercapnia (increased CO2).
Retinopathy of prematurity Condition in which damage to blood vessels in the retina may cause decreased vision or blindness.
Small-for-gestational-age infant An infant whose size is below the 10th percentile for gestational age.
Transcutaneous oxygen monitoring Method of continuous noninvasive measurement of oxygen in the blood by transducers attached to the skin.
Very-low-birth-weight infant An infant weighing 1500 g (3 lb, 5 oz) or less at birth.
Created by: SGT.MOSS