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Normal Speech

Ch 1-3

QuestionAnswer
What is communication? sending and receiving of information, ideas, feelings
sending expressive: requesting, questioning, texting, teaching, writing, body language
receiving receptive: reading, listening
What is language? Abstract grammar rule system
5 Language Rule Systems syntax pragmatics semantics morphology phonology
Phonology rules that govern our sound system
Morphology rules that govern how words are formed by sounds and modified to change the meaning of that word
Syntax rules that govern sequencing of words or signs within clauses phrases and sentences
Semantics rules that govern word meaning
Lexicon where vocabulary gets stored
Pragmatics rules that fovern discourse and social appropriateness in coversations
Functions of Language request, negate, ask questions, social greetings, story telling
Discourse skills egocentric, needs a lot of support, initiation of a conversation, closing off conversation / shift topic, body language, eye contact
speech physical act & oral expression of language voice, intonation, articulators
Nature Argument Human anatomy has evolved to enable us to speak specific genes all animals communicate its innate in us specific areas of the brain: brocas and wernicki's area
Nurture Argument absence of social interaction from birth or early age = no normal language
3 Major Theories of Language Acquisition Nativists Behavorists Interactionists
Behaviorists Interpretation B.F. Skinner kids arent going to develop language unless we teach them language is something we do not something the have
Nativists Interpretation Noam Chomsky Language is processed by universal and innate rules governing deep and surface structure
Transformational Generative Grammar Deep: seed that we are all born with Surgace: form and express the deep thought
LAD Brain structure (location unknown) designed to process language driven by knowledge common to all languages provides one with innate knowledge of "deep" structures and the ability to acquire the rules for the "surface" structure of your native language
Interactionists interpretation varying degrees of support for the riles of biology and environment more of a balance between roles of nature and nurture
Semantic Revolution shift in focus away from pure syntactic analysis of language development toward analysis of grammatical structure/ syntax within the context of the speakers intended meaning
LASS language acquisition support structure, necessary for children to learn language as a result of interactions with others
Motherese high pitch intonation pattern that children respond to ex: go-go-ga-ga
Expansion occurs when adult repeats what a child has said but adds additional words Ex: Ball!, yes that is a big red ball!
Imputing meaning giving meaning to what you think they are wanting to say Ex: are you a hungry baby? you want some milk
Joint Action Routines Caregiver and child are focusing on the same object or event at the same time ex: baby reaches for an object and waits for the caregivers response
Piagets stages of intellectual development stages are cumulative and must go in order, they are prerequisite for the next; ages may be different
Stage 1: Sensorimotor intelligence (birth- 2 years) reflexive behaviors: peeing, pooping, sleeping interactions with their environment is basic/ physical fast stage for cognitive growth symbolic behavior: talk about things that aren't right in front of you
Stage 2: Preoperational thought (2-7 years) Huge growth in syntax, phonology and semantics, vocabulary grows so much over those years thinks abstractly: categorizes things (schemas)able to solve concrete, physical problems
Stage 3: Concrete operational 7-11 years 2nd -5th grade think logically
Stage 4: Formal Operational 11-15 yrs Cognition is fully intact, mentally manipulate in their heads, test hypothesis, reason to think logically
Representation / Symbolic understanding one thing representing another concept ex: doll represents the actual doll
Object Permanence belief that an object does truly exist when an object is out of sight develops it gradually over first year of life
Causality when one event causes another event to happen,out of our control
means-end extension of cause and effect uses cause/effect relationship to solve puzzles and make things happen for them if we did something to have "a" cause "b"
Imitation/Delayed or Deferred Imitation Repetition of a behavior
Play Fun, child-directed activities that provide the child with opportunities to export the world around them
Substage 1 (birth to 1 month) crying, sucking, reflexively
Substage 2 (1-4 months) developing an interest in objects/people using visuals/auditory senses to maintain contact with objects
Substage 3 (4-8 months) Imitates actions he/she used earlier egocentric
Substage 4 (8-12 months) babbling and first words
Substage 5 (12-18 months) sees other as agents for casualty in novel situations
Substage 6 (18-24 months) emergence of symbolic play objects much closely resemble "real" object
Perception the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses and helps you to form a mental interpretation of something, also a way of regarding something
Distancing basic perceptual principle, ability to get a mental picture in your mind without physically seeing it, seeing a picture, or touching it
Private speech important in terms of cognitive development because its difficult to have private speech if you don’t have language skills Boosts organizational skills, Formulating and executing plans, Focused attention, Memory
Zone of proximal development Talk to them, not above or belove them language is used to talk through the problems that the child is having can retain the "cues" for performing better for the task they are performing
controlled/selective attention shut everything out besides what your working on Ex: doing hmwk when other ppl are around
divided attention splitting your attention between two conversations ex: driving
working memory ability to remember something that someone told you ex: phone number
executive functioning higher level of planning & organization ex: planning a party
Theory of Mind seeing something from someone elses point of view
Schema area that children put things in to categorize different ideas as they come in
Assimilation when a new word or idea fits into an existing schema and therefore no new schema is created
Accomodation when the child needs to change his/her view on specific schemas in order to allow a new word into their minds
Equilibrium a process to ensure a balance between assimilation and accommodation
Created by: breanaranna123