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Algorithms Review

Review for Algorithms Quiz...

What is an algorithm? An algorithm is a set of clear, ordered steps aimed to accomplish a task in a given period of time.
What are the 4 main characteristics of an algorithm? (1) You can number its steps in a specific order. (2) Each instruction is clear and do-able. (3) It accomplishes a task or solves a given problem. (4) It terminates (does not run forever!)
What are the 4 ways you can represent an algorithm? (1) Natural Language (English, French, Spanish). (2) Flowchart (shapes). (3) Pseudo-code (code-like formatted english constructs). (4) Programming Languages (real executable code on the computer, like Python, Alice, Java, etc).
What is a sequence? It is a set of instructions that are executed in the order they appear (like, look both way > cross the street > buy ice cream).
What is a conditional statement? It is a line of code that asks a true/false question and then selects the next instruction based on the answer (true or false).
What is a repetitive statement? It is a statement that makes the block of code repeat over and over again. We call that a loop.
What shape should you always begin and end your flowcharts? An oval.
What shape should you use for steps like "Drive a mile", or "Calculate the average"? How many arrows can come out of that shape? A rectangle, since they are actions/verbs. One arrow coming OUT only!
What shape do you use for a question/condition? How many arrows can come out of that shape? A rhombus. Exactly two arrows coming OUT: one for the Yes/True answer, and one for the No/False answer.
How do you create a loop in a flowchart? Example, if you want to work until it is 5pm then go home, how can you represent that in a flowchart? You need to use a rectangle for the action ("work") followed by rhombus to check for the condition ("Is it 5pm?"). The "No" arrow will point back to the rectangle ("work"), and the other arrow (Yes) will point forward to the next instruction ("go home").
What are the keywords for the IF statement? IF, THEN, ELSE, ENDIF. Make sure to indent the steps inside the IF and the ELSE blocks, and to align the IF with the corresponding ELSE and ENDIF.
What does this code print? (1) x = 10 (2) IF x > 5 THEN (3) print "A" (4)ELSE (5) print "B" (6)ENDIF It will print "A" since 10 is bigger than 5.
Created by: klaidley