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Biochem-Amino Acids

Med’11 Biochemistry Proteins

Proteins Polymers of amino acids
Amino acids The basic building blocks of polymers
List the biological functions of proteins. 1. Catalytic Function 2. Transport and Storage 3. Coordinated Motion 4. Structural & Mechanical Support 5. Defense Function 6. Generation & Transmission of Nerve Impulses 7. Control of Growth & Differentiation
What does each amino acid have? An amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a side chain bonded to an alpha-carbon atom.
Describe the amino acid at physiologic pH. The carboxyl dissociates, forming the negatively charged ion. The amino group is protonated, forming the positively charged ion.
How many acids make up the proteins in the body? 20
How do different side chains vary from each other? Size Shape Charge Hydrogen-bonding capacity Chemical reactivity
What is the simplest amino acid? Glycine (Gly - G)
What are the polar, positively charged amino acids? Lysine (Lys - K) Arginine (Arg - R) Histidine (His - H)
What are the polar, negatively charged amino acids? Aspartic Acid (Asp - D) Glutamic Acid (Glu - E)
Which 2 amino acids have sulfur? Methionine (Met - M) Cysteine (Cys - C)
What are the amino acids with the aromatic R-groups? Which are nonpolar, and which are polar? Nonpolar: Phenylalanine Trytophan Polar: Tyrosine (because it has a hydroxyl group)
Give some examples of hydrophobic amino acids. Glycine Methionine Proline
Give an example of a polar, uncharged amino acid. Cysteine
Which amino acid has a nonpolar, aliphatic, cyclic R group? Proline
Which are the most hydrophilic R groups? The amino acids that are either positively or negatively charged. +ve: Lys - His - Arg -ve: Asp - Glu
What is the difference between essential and nonessential amino acids? Essential: cannot be synthesized in the body and must be taken in the diet. Nonessential: can be synthesized in the body; not needed in the diet
What is the difference between ketogenic, glucogenic, and mixed amino acids? Ketogenic: give ketone bodies Glucogenic: give glucose Mixed: give both ketone bodies and glucose
Which amino acid is both nonessential and ketogenic and glucogenic? Tyrosine
Which amino acids are both essential and ketogenic and glucogenic? Phenylalanine Tryptophan Isoleucine
Which amino acids are both essential and ketogenic? Leucine Lysine
What is the largest amino acid? Tryptophan
Which amino acid does not have a stereoisomer? Glycine
If the amino acid has a stereoisomer, the alpha-carbon is called _____. asymmetric (chiral)
What are the 2 possible forms of stereoisomers? Which one is found in amino acid residues? L-form and D-form. L-form
How does an amino acid behave in an acidic medium? Basic medium? What is this property called? Acidic medium: proton acceptor Basic medium: proton donor This is an amphoteric property.
What is the pI? Isoelectric point: a specific pH where the amino acid is fully ionized but electrically neutral.
What is the amino acid called at pI? Zwitter ion
Created by: Salma O