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Biochem Lecture 4

Review of Amino Acid Metabolism

QuestionAnswer
3 sources of amino acids are: 1. Body Protein 2. Dietary Protein 3. Synthesis of non-essential amino acids
When does our body use protein as a source of energy? When we have excess protein or a lack of Carbs and Lipids.
List the essential amino acids: Phe, Val, Thr, Ile, Met, His, Arg, Lys, Leu
What amino acids are formed by transamination reactions? Alanine, aspartate, and glutamate
Alanine is formed from ______ using the enzyme ______. Pyruvate; ALT (with glutamate as a cofactor)
Aspartate is formed from ______ using the enzyme ________. Oxaloacetate; AST
Asparagine is formed from _______. Aspartate
Glutamine is formed from ________. Glutamate
In the formation of asparagine, _________ is the amide donor. Glutamine
Proline is formed from _______. Glutamate
Serine is formed from ________. 3-phosphoglycerate (intermediate of glycolysis)or glycine
Glycine is formed from _________. Serine
Cysteine is formed from _______. Serine and Methionine
Tyrosine is formed from _________. Phenylalanine
PKU is a disease that leads to CNS problems and pigmentation deficiencies and is caused by_____. The absense of phenylalanine hydroxylase; the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
Homocystinuria is a disease that causes premature vascular disease and mental defects and is caused by ________. An absence of the enzyme cystathionine synthase which catalyzes the creation of Cystine.
3 sources of amino acids are: 1. Body Protein 2. Dietary Protein 3. Synthesis of non-essential amino acids
When does our body use protein as a source of energy? When we have excess protein or a lack of Carbs and Lipids.
List the essential amino acids: Phe, Val, Thr, Ile, Met, His, Arg, Lys, Leu
What amino acids are formed by transamination reactions? Alanine, aspartate, and glutamate
Alanine is formed from ______ using the enzyme ______. Pyruvate; ALT (with glutamate as a cofactor)
Aspartate is formed from ______ using the enzyme ________. Oxaloacetate; AST
Asparagine is formed from _______. Aspartate
Glutamine is formed from ________. Glutamate
In the formation of asparagine, _________ is the amide donor. Glutamine
Proline is formed from _______. Glutamate
Serine is formed from ________. 3-phosphoglycerate (intermediate of glycolysis)or glycine
Glycine is formed from _________. Serine
Cysteine is formed from _______. Serine and Methionine
Tyrosine is formed from _________. Phenylalanine
PKU is a disease that leads to CNS problems and pigmentation deficiencies and is caused by_____. The absense of phenylalanine hydroxylase; the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
Homocystinuria is a disease that causes premature vascular disease and mental defects and is caused by ________. An absence of the enzyme cystathionine synthase which catalyzes the creation of Cystine.
Ketogenic amino acids yield ______. acetyl CoA or acetoacetate
Glucogenic amino acids yield ______. Pyruvate or Kreb cycle intermediates
Aminotransferases (transaminases) depend on Vitamin b6
The 2 most important aminotransferases are: ALT and AST
Alanine amino transferase (ALT) changes alanine and a-ketoglutarate into _________ pyruvate and glutamate
Aspartate amino transferase (AST) changes glutamate and a-ketoglutarate into ________ Aspartate and oxaloacetate
_________ are the sources of urea nitrogen. Aspartate and ammonia
________ releases free ammonia for urea synthesis. Oxidative deamination reaction of glutmatate.
The oxidative deamination reaction of glutamate releases what products? a-ketoglutarate + NH3 (ammonia)
What enzyme is involved in the oxidative deamination of glutamate? glutamate dehydrogenase
Where is arginase found and what does it do? Arginase is only found in the liver; It converts arginine to urea in the Urea cycle.
What is the overall reaction of the Urea Cycle? Aspartate + NH3 + CO2 + 3 ATP ----> Urea + Fumurate + 2 ADP + AMP + 2 Pi + PPi
The first two reactions of the Urea cycle occur in the ________, and the remaining three take place in the __________. Mitochondrial Matrix; Cytosol
Created by: chilangberto