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Toland Lit Terms

Toland Literary Terms

Alliteration A group of words beginning with the same letter
Hyperbole A ridiculously exaggerated statement
Oxymoron Foolish, contradictory statements. EX: jumbo shrimp, bitter sweet
Onomatopoeia Describe a sound EX: Boom, Bang, Pow
Assonance Repetition of vowel sounds with different consanents used in the middle of a sentence. EX: Penitent and Reticence
Parallelism When something is referenced that parallels something else
Juxtaposition Two words of opposite meaning used closely together EX: The whispers of lovers could barely be heard over the noise of the crowd.
Synecdoche Using a part to represent a whole EX: All hands on deck.
Ambiguity The meaning is unclear. EX: I'll give you a ring tomorrow (call or object?)
Aposiopesis Unfinished sentence used to add dramatic effect.
Conceit Metaphor comparing unlikely things using imagery. EX: All the worlds a stage
Anaphora Repetition of words at the beginning of successive sentences. EX: 5, 5 dollar, 5 dollar foot long
Litotes Understatements, double negatives. EX: Not bad
Epigram A precise, clever statement; Paradoxical
Circumlocution Unnecessarily wordy; "beating around the bush" EX: A certain long eared animal with a pension for carrots VS just saying Rabbit
Non Sequitor Doesnt follow, jumping to conclusions. EX: She's dumb because her nose is big.
Synesthesia Better understanding of one emotion to describe another EX: It feels blue or It feels loud
Pathetic Fallacy Giving an inanimate object feelings or characteristics. EX: The sun smiled down on the cheerful town.
Tautology Unnecessary repetition of words/meaning
Epistrophe Repetition of the same word at the end of successive phrases EX: I swear to tell the TRUTH, the whole TRUTH, and nothing but the TRUTH
Stream of Consciousness Saying thoughts as you feel them
Apposition Phrase added to a title to add detail. EX: Michael Jackson, the king of pop, is dead.
Ad Hominem Attacking a persons character without listening to their argument; Pre-judging.
Metonymy Use of one object related to another. EX: We are always loyal to the crown. (with crown representing the country)
Picaresque Sub-genre of prose; fiction which is satirical and depicts unrealistic/humorous detail. EX: Robin Hood (He is a hero even though he steals from others)
Cacophonous Harsh/Jarring sound
Euphonious Pleasant, agreeable sound
Colloquialism Word/Phrase that is informal and is used in ordinary conversation. EX: Soda and Pop
Anadiplosis Repetition of the last word of a preceding clause. End of one, beginning of another. EX: Thats why I am here, to win. To win would make me happy.
Malapropism Misuse of a word through confusion with another word that sounds similar especially when the effect is ridiculous.
Catalogue Classified with a categorical system
Anastrophe Inverted order of words EX: Good it is ~Yoda
Invective Speech/Writing insulting a person/topic/institution
Parody Literary/artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of another author/work for comic effect or ridicule.
Zeugma Rhetorical term for use of a word to modify/govern two or more words. EX: I just blew my nose, and a fuse.
Syllogism A form of deductive reasoning with major/minor premise and conclusion EX: All mammals are warm blooded, all dogs are mammals, therefore all dogs are warm blooded.
Versimilitude Quality of realism/resemblance of truth EX: Avatar movie
Wit Intellectually amusing language which surprises/delights
Antithesis Contrary ideas in a balanced sentence
Bildungsroman Novel about the moral and psychological development of the main character
Trope A figure of speech in which words are used in a sense different from their literal meaning
Coordination Way of combining sentences that makes both clauses equally important creating a COMPOUND SENTENCE
Subordination Way of combining sentences that makes one sentence more important than the other to create a COMPLEX SENTENCE
Predicate Adjective Follows a linking verb and describes a noun EX: Roses are Beautiful - where beautiful is the predicate adjective describing the roses and following the linking verb, 'are'.
Antecedent The word phrase or cause that is referred to by a pronoun or relative adverb EX: I did not see Bob today, he must be sick. - where Bob is the antecedent of he
Apostrophe The author is addressing objects as if they were in his/her personal presence; a form of personification
Periodic Sentence A sentence that is not grammatically complete until the final clause or phrase
Paradox a statement that appears to be self contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity EX: Deep down he's really very shallow
Loose Sentence A sentence that does not end with the completion of its man clause but it continues with one or more subordinate clauses or other modifiers
Extended Metaphor A comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem
Mixed Metaphor A succession of ludicrous comparisons EX: He's a loose cannon who always goes off the deep end
Root Metaphor An image, narrative, or fact that shapes and individuals perception of the world and interpretation of reality EX: Time is money
Absolute Metaphor A metaphor in which one of the terms cant be readily distinguished from the other EX: We faced a scallywag of tasks (The connotation could be good or bad, we cannot tell)
Blank Verse A verse without rhyme especially that uses iambic pentameter
Syntax The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language
Diction Word Choice
Semantics The study of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning, as of words, phrases, sentences, or text
1st Person POV Narrator tells the story; commonly uses "I" or "we"
Inference The act of reason and drawing conclusions from factual knowledge or evidence
Genre Of or pertaining to a distincive literary type EX: Nonfiction
Tone The authors attitude towards a subject
Denotation Strict dictionary definition
Symbol Represents and idea, a physical entity or a process but is distinct from it
3rd Person Limited POV One characters point of view
Dead Metaphor a metaphor which has lost its originaly imagary due to extensive over-use
Analogy A comparison between an unfamiliar and a familiar object in order to explain the unfamiliar
Asyndeton Omits Conjunctions
Polysndeton Employs many conjunctions
Pedantic An adjective describing words, "Showy words", or "big words" that people use when writing
Didactic Teaching/Instructing of moral/ethical principles
Chiasmus Two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures. Inverted Parallelism
Conceit Cleverness through an unusual comparison
Aphorism Expresses a general truth or moral principle; a memorable summation of the authors point
1 Form of Satire Juvenalien Harsh, critical
2 Form of Satire Horatian Sympathetic, Gentle, Playful
Polyptoton Root word with different suffixes/prefixes in a different tense EX: Working HARD or HARDLY working
Allegory A symbolic narrative
Anecdote A short and amusing story about a real incident or person
Created by: CaitlynAC



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