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A&P 2 - E1 - P4

A&P 2 - Exam 1 - Part 4 - Physiology, Blood Pressure

Blood flows because a ________________ exists between different parts of its bed. pressure gradient
The pressure gradient of blood flow is based on _________________. Newton's first and second laws of motion
Blood circulates from the left ventricle to the right atrium of the heart because a _______________ exists between these two structures. blood pressure gradient
What is the symbol used to stand for a pressure gradient? P1-P2
P1 represents the ____________ pressure and P2 represents the ____________ pressure. higher, lower
The primary determinant of arterial blood pressure is the _______________ of blood in the arteries. volume
A direct relationship exists between arterial blood volume and ____________. arterial pressure
What does CO stand for? cardiac output
What is cardiac output determined by? stroke volume and heart rate
What is volume pumped per heartbeat? stroke volume
What does SV stand for? stroke volume
CO = _______ * _________ SV, HR
CO is computed by ___________ formula. Fick's
Anything that changes either heart rate or stroke volume also tends to change CO, arterial blood volume, and blood pressure in ___________. the same direction
What law influences stroke volume? Starling's
Starling's law: Within limits, the longer, or more stretched, the heart fibers at the beginning of contraction, the _____________ the contraction. stronger
Starling's law: The amount of blood in the heart at the end of _________ determines the amount of _________ placed on the heart fibers. diastole, stretch
The ______________ node normally initiates each heartbeat; however various factors can and do change the ___________ of the heartbeat. sinoatrial node, rate
Where are aortic baroreceptors located? aorta
Where are carotid baroreceptors located? carotid sinus
Baroreceptors affect the __________ and therefore parasympathetic and sympathetic outflow to aid in control of ______________. autonomic cardiac control center, blood pressure
The carotid sinus is located at the beginning of the _____________. internal carotid artery
Sensory fibers from __________ run through the carotid sinus nerve and the ___________ nerve to the cardiac control center. carotid sinus baroreceptors, glossopharyngeal
____________ impulses leave the cardiac control center and travel through the ____________ to reach the sinoatrial node. parasympathetic, vagus nerve
Aortic reflex: sensory fibers extend from _____________ in the wall of the arch of the aorta through the _________ nerve and the ___________ nerve to terminate in the ______________. baroreceptors, aortic, vagus, cardiac control center
Reflexive increases in heart rate often result from increased _____________ stimulation of the heart. sympathetic
Anxiety, fear and anger ___________ heart rate. increase
Grief _____________ heart rate. decreases
Emotions produce changes in heart rate through the influence of impulses from the __________ via the ____________. cerebrum, hypothalamus
Exercise normally ___________ heart rate. increases
Increased blood temperature or stimulation of skin heat receptors __________ heart rate. increases
Decreased blood temperature or stimulation of skin cold receptors ___________ heart rate. decreases
What is the resistance to blood flow imposed by the force of friction between blood and the walls of its vessels? peripheral resistance
Peripheral resistance is the resistance to ___________ imposed by the force of friction between blood and the ___________. blood flow, walls of its vessels
Arterial blood pressure tends to vary ____________ with peripheral resistance. directly
Arterial blood pressure tends to vary directly with ____________. peripheral resistance
Friction is due to __________ and ___________ of arterioles and capillaries viscosity, small diameter
The muscular coat of arterioles allows them to _________ or _________ and change the amount of resistance to blood flow. constrict, dialate
_____________ helps determine arterial pressure by controlling the amount of blood that runs from the arteries to the arterioles. peripheral resistance
_________ resistance and __________ arteriole runoff leads to __________ arterial pressure. increased, decreased, higher
What controls changes in the diameter of aterioles? vasomotor control mechanism
_______________ plays a role in maintenance of the general blood pressure and in distribution of blood to areas of special need. vasomotor control mechanism
Vasomotor pressoreflexes: Sudden increase in arterial blood pressure stimulates aortic and carotid __________________ which results in arterioles and venules of the blood reservoirs _______________. baroreceptors, dialating
Vasomotor pressoreflexes: Decrease in arterial blood pressure results in stimulation of _____________ centers, causing vascular smooth muscle to _____________. vasoconstrictor, constrict
Vasomotor chemoreflexes: What are chemoreceptors located in aortic and carotid bodies sensitive to? hypercapnia, hypoxia, and decreased arterial blood pH
What acts during emergency situations when there is decreased blood flow to the medulla? medullary ischemic reflex
Medullary ischemic reflex causes marked arteriole and venous ____________. constriction
Impulses from centers in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus are transmitted to vasomotor centers in the medulla to help control ______________. vasoconstriction and dilation
Impulses from centers in the ______________ and _____________ are transmitted to vasomotor centers in the ____________ to help control vasoconstriction and dilation. cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, medulla
Several local mechanisms produce vasodilation in localized areas; this is referred to as _____________. reactive hyperemia
Created by: K1N1V



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