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A&P 2 - E1 - P3

A&P 2 - Exam 1 - Part 3 - Physiology, Cardiovascular

What is a vital role of the cardiovascular system? maintaining homeostasis
The caridovascular's vital role of maintaining homeostasis depends on the continuous and controlled movement of _________________. blood through capillaries
Numerous control mechanisms help to regulate and integrate the diverse functions and component parts of the ________________. cardiovascular system
What is the function of the cardiovascular system? to supply blood in response to specific body area needs
What is a a collection of mechanisms that influence the dynamic circulation of blood? hemodynamics
The circulation of different ________________ is essential for healthy survival. volumes of blood per minute
What two functions must circulation control mechanisms accomplish? maintain circulation, vary volume and distribution of the blood circulated
What are the four structures that compose the conduction system of the heart? sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, Purkinje fibers
Conduction system structures are more ________________ than ordinary cardiac muscle tissue. highly specialized
Conduction system structures permit only rapid conduction of _____________ through the heart. an action potential
What initializes each heart beat and sets it's pace? sinoatrial node, aka the pacemaker
What do specialized pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node possess? an intrinsic rhythm
After being generated by the SA node, each impulse travels throughout the muscle fibers of _____________ causing them to contract. both atria
As the action potential enters the AV node from the right atrium, its conduction ________ to allow complete contraction of both atrial chambers before the impulse reaches the ______________. slows, ventricles
After the AV node, conduction velocity _____________ as the impulse is relayed through the AV bundle into the ______________. increases, ventricles
Right and left branches of the bundle fibers and Purkinje fibers conduct the impulses throughout the muscles of both _____________, stimulating them to contract ______________. ventricles, almost simultaneously
What does ECG or EKG stand for? electrocardiogram
What is a graphic record of the heart's electrical activity and it's conduction of impulses? electrocardiogram
What is a record of the electrical events that precede the contractions of the heart? electrocardiogram
What is attached to a subject to produce an ECG? electrodes of an electrocardiograph
An ECG records _______________ that represent changes in the hearts electrical activity. changes in voltage
A normal ECG is composed of what parts? P wave, QRS complex, T wave (and sometimes a U wave)
What does the P wave represent? the depolarization of the atria
What does the QRS complex represent? the depolarization of the ventricles and the repolarization of atria
What does the T wave represent? the repolarization of the ventricles
What does the U wave represent? the repolarization of the papillary muscles
Measurement of the intervals between P, QRS, and T waves can provide information about the _____________ of an ____________ through the heart rate of conduction, action potential
The _____________ is a complete heartbeat consisting of what contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of both atria and both ventricles. cardiac cycle
What is contraction in the cardiac cycle? systole
What is relaxation in the cardiac cycle? diastole
The cardiac cycle is often divided into ________________. time intervals
During ______________ the contraction of atria completes, emptying blood out of the atria into the ventricles. atrial systole
During atrial systole, __________ are open and ____________ are closed. atrioventricular valves, semilunar valves
During atrial systole, ___________ are relaxed and filling with blood. ventricles
What cycle begins with the P wave of the ECG? atrial systole
What occurs between the start of ventricular systole and the opening of the semilunar valves? isovolumetric ventricular contraction
During isovolumetric ventricular contraction, ventricular volume ______________ as the pressure increases rapidly. remains constant
The onset of ventricular systole coincides with the __________ of the ECG and the appearance of the first _____________. R wave, heart sound
During ejection, ____________ open and blood is ejected from the heart when the pressure gradient in the ventricles exceeds that of the _________________. semilunar valves, pumonary artery and aorta
What initial short phase is characterized by a marked increase in ventricular and aortic pressure and in aortic blow flow? rapid ejection
What phase is characterized by a less abrupt decrease in ventricular volume? reduced ejection
The reduced ejection phase coincides with what? T wave
Ventricular diastole begins with what phase? isovolumetric ventricular relaxation
Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation occurs between _____________ and _____________. closure of semilunar valve, opening of atrioventricular valves
During isovolumetric ventricular relaxation there is a _____________ in interventricular pressure and _____________ in volume. dramatic fall, no change
The second heart sound is heard during what period? isovolumetric ventricular relaxation
During isovolumetric ventricular relaxation, what heart sound is heard? second
During passive ventricular filling, returning venous blood increases intra-atrial pressure until the ____________ are forced open and blood rushes into the relaxing ___________. atrioventricular valves, ventricles
During passive ventricular filling, influx lasts approximately ___________. 0.1 second
During passive ventricular filling, _________ results in a dramatic increase in ventricular volume. influx
During passive ventricular filling, diastasis lasts approximately ___________. 0.2 second
During passive ventricular filling, ___________ is a later, longer period of slow ventricular filling at the end of ventricular diastole. diastasis
During passive ventricular filling, _____________ is characterized by a gradual increase in ventricular pressure and volume. diastasis
The systolic sound is the ________ heart sound, believed to be caused primarily by the contraction of the _____________ and by vibrations of the closing ______________. first, ventricles, atrioventricular valves
The diastolic sound is a short, sharp sound thought to be caused by vibrations of the closing of the _____________. semilunar valves
Heart sounds have clinical significance because they give information about the functioning of the ____________ of the heart. valves
Created by: K1N1V



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