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Pathophysiology

Questions regarding Pathophysiology

QuestionAnswer
Cancer is a disorder of altered cell ______ and ______. Differentiation and growth
The process of cell division results in cellular ________. Proliferation
______ is the process of specialization whereby new cells acquire the structure & function of the cells they replace. Differentiation
Proteins called ______ control entry and progression of cells through the cell cycle. Kinases
Kinases are enzymes that ____ proteins. Phosphorylate
Continually renewing cell populations rely on _____ cells of the same lineage that have not yet differentiated to the extent that they have lost their ability to divide. Progenitor
____ cells remain incompletely undifferentiated throughout life. Stem
_____ stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stages of the embryo. Embryonic
The term _____ refers to an abnormal mass of tissue in which the growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues. Neoplasm
_____ do not usually cause death unless the location interferes with vital organs function. Benign tumors
Malignant neoplasms are less well ____ and have the ability to break loose, enter the circulatory or lymphatic systems, and form secondary malignant tumors at other sites. Differentiated
Tumors usually are named by adding the suffix- _____ to the parenchymal tissue type from which the growth originated. -oma
A ____ is growth that projects from a mucosal surface. Polyp
The term _____ is used to designate a malignant tumor of epithelial tissue origin. Carcinoma
There are two categories of malignant neoplasms, _____ and ____ cancers. Solid tumors, hematological
The term ____ is used to describe the loss of cell differentiation in cancerous tissue. Anaplasia
A characteristic of cancer cells is the ability to proliferate even in the absence of _____. Growth factors
With homologous loss of ____ gene activity, DNA damage goes unrepaired and mutations occur in dividing cells, leading to malignant transformations. p53
The types of genes involved in cancer are numerous, with two main categories being the ______, which control cell growth and replication, and tumor _____ genes, which are growth-inhibiting regulatory genes. Protooncogenes, suppressor
______ is the only known retrovirus to cause cancer in humans. Human T cell leukemia virus-1
Tumor cells must double ____ times before there will be a palpable mass. 30
A common manifestation of solid tumors is the cancer ___ syndrome. anorexia-cachexia
As cancers grow, they compress and erode blood vessels, causing ____ and _____ along with frank bleeding and sometimes hemorrhage. ulceration, cachexia
_____ is a common side effect of many cancers. It is related to blood loss, hemolysis, impaired red cell production, or treatment effects. Anemia
A tissue _____ involves the removal of a tissue specimen for microscopic study. biopsy
_____ therapy uses high-energy particles or waves to destroy or damage cancer cells. radiation
______ is a systemic treatment that enables drugs to reach the site of the tumor as well as other distant sites. chemotherapy
Undefined or less differentiated cellular mass Malignant mass
Defines the differentiation potential of stem cells Cellular potency
Stems cells undergoing numerous mitotic divisions while maintaining an undifferentiated state Renewal
Process of cell division Proliferation
Cancer stem cells Tumor-initiating cells
Mass of cells due to overgrowth Tumor
Process that removes senescent and or damaged cells Apoptosis
Well-differentiated mass of cells Benign mass
Process of cell specialization Differentiation
Study of tumors and their treatment Oncology
Normal gene that can cause cancer if mutated Protooncogene
Ratio of dividing cells to restoring cells Growth fraction
Promote cancer when less active Tumor suppressor gene
Marked by chromosomal aberrations Genetic instability
Changes in gene expression without DNA mutation Epigenetic effects
Loss of cell differentiation Anaplasia
Epithelial cells must be anchored to either neighboring cells or the underlying extracellular matrix Anchorage dependence
Time it takes for the total mass of cells in a tumor to double Doubling time
Tumor suppressor gene p53
The _____ consists of fluid contained within all of the billions of cells in the body. ICF compartment
The ____ contains all the fluids outside the cells, including those in the interstitial or tissue spaces and blood vessels. ECF compartment
_____ are substances that dissociate in solution to form ions. Electrolytes
Particles that do not dissociate into ions such as glucose and urea are called ______. nonelectrolytes
______ is the movement of charged or uncharged particles along a concentration gradient. Diffusion
_____ is the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane. Osmosis
____ refers to the osmolar concentration in 1 L of solution and _____ to the osmolar concentration in 1 kg of water. Osmolarity, Osmolality
The predominant osmotically active particles in the extracellular fluid are ____ and its associated anions (Cl- and HCO3-). NA+
The difference between the calculated and measured osmolality is called the _____. osmolar gap
____ proteins and other organic compounds cannot pass through the membrane. Osmotically active
The _____ membrane pump continuously removes three Na+ ions from the cell for every two K+ ions that are moved back into the cell. Na+ K+ ATPase
____ refers to the movement of water through capillary pores because of a mechanical, rather than an osmotic, force. Capillary filtration
The ____ represents an accessory route whereby fluid from the interstitial spaces can return to the circulation. lymphatic system
_____ is a palpable swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Edema
Edema due to decreased capillary colloidal osmotic pressure usually is the result of inadequate production or abnormal loss of ______. plasma proteins
____ edema occurs at times when the accumulation of interstitial fluid exceeds the absorptive capacity of the tissue gel. Pitting
_____ represent an accumulation or trapping of body fluids that contribute to body weight but not to fluid reserve or function third-space fluids
Water losses that occur through the skin and lungs are referred to as ____ because they occur without a person's awareness. insensible water losses
Most sodium losses occur through the _____. kidney
The major regulator of sodium and water balance is the maintenance of the ______. effective circulating volume
RAAS exerts its action through ____ and ____. angiotensin ll, aldosterone
_____ is primarily a regulator of water intake and ____ is a regulator of water output. Thirst, ADH
_____ involves compulsive water drinking and is usually seen in persons with psychiatric disorders, most commonly schizophrenia. Psychogenic polydipsia
____ (DI) is caused by a deficiency of or a decreased response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Diabetes insipidus
Disorders of sodium concentration produce a change in the osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF) with movement water from the ECF compartment into the intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment, known as _____. hyponatremia
From ICF compartment into the ECF compartment known as _____. hypernatremia
When the effective circulating blood volume is compromised, the condition is often referred to as _____. hypovolemia
_____ cause sequestering of ECF in the serous cavities, extracellular spaces in injured tissues, or lumen of the gut. Third-space losses
Fluid volume excess represents an ____ expansion of the ECF compartment with increases in both interstitial and vascular volumes. isotonic
_____ represents a plasma sodium concentration below 135 mEq/L. Hyponatremia
_____ hyponatremia represents retention of water with dilution of sodium while maintaining the ECF volume within a normal range. Normovolemic hypotonic
MDMA (Ectasy) and its metabolites have been shown to produce enhanced release of ___ from the hypothalmus. ADH
Positively charged ions Cations
Pressure by which water is drawn into a solution through a semipermeable membrane Osmotic Pressure
Osmotic pressure generated by the plasma proteins that do not pass through the pores of the capillary wall Cappillary Colloidal osmostic pressure
Effect that the effective osmotic pressure of a solution on cell size because of water movement across the cell membrane. Tonicity
The result of increased vascular volume. Generalized Edema
Increased permeability of glomerulus to proteins Glomerulonephritis
Effective osmolality same as the ICF Isotonic solution
Urine output that is required to eliminate wastes Obligatory urine output
Negatively charged ions Anions
Edema due to impaired lymph drainage Lymphedema
Failure of the negative feedback system that regulates the release and inhibition of ADH SIADH
Acts at the cortical collecting tubules to increase sodium reabsorption Aldosterone
Hypertonic concentration Hypernatremia
State of fluid volume excess affecting cardiac function Circulatory Overload
Hypotonic dilution Hyponatremia
Respond to pressure-induced stretch of the vessel walls Baroreceptors
Renal insensitivity to ADH Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Respond to changes in ECF osmolality by swelling or drinking Osmoreceptors
Increases sodium excretion by the kidney ANP
Decrease in the ability to sense thirst Hypodipsia
Can function as acid or base Amphoretic
Molecule that can release an H+ Acid
Measures the level of all the buffer systems of the blood Whole blood buffer base
Anion gap of urine Delta gap
Genetic mitochondrial disorder MELAS
Acute increases in HCO3- Excess base loading
Ion or molecule that can accept an H+ Base
Catalyzes bicarbonate reaction Carbonic anhydrase
Increase in plasma PCO2 Hypercapnia
The degree to which an acid or base in a buffer system dissociates Dissociation constant
The ability of the body to function and maintain _____ under conditions of change in the internal and external env. depends on the thousands of ___ control systems that regulate body function. homeostasis, physiologic
____ is achieved only through a system of carefully coordinated physiologic processes that oppose change. Homeostasis
Most control systems in the body operate by ____ feedback mechanisms. negative
Selye described _____ as a state manifested by a specific syndrome of the body developed in response to any stimuli that made an intense systemic demand on it. stress
Stress may contribute directly to the production or exacerbation of a ____. disease
There is evidence that the ____ axis, the ____ hormonal, and the ____ nervous systems are differentially activated depending on the type & intensity of the stressor. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical, adrenomedullary, symphetic
Human beings, because of their highly developed nervous system and intellect, usually have alternative mechanisms for ___ and have the ability to control many aspects of their env. adapting
The means used to attain this balance are called _____. coping strategy
_____ is considered a restorative function in which energy is restored and tissues are regenerated. Sleep
___ is commonly used in excess and can suppress the immune system. Alcohol
Stressor that produces a response Conditioning Factors
Increases water retention by the kidneys and produces vasoconstriction of blood vessels Antidiuretic hormone
Regulation of heart rate and vasomotor tone Baroreflex
Physiologic changes in the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and immune systems in respone to real or perceived challenges to homeostasis. Allostasis
Ability of body systems to increase their function given the need to adapt Physiologic reserve
Enhances stress-induced release of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary Angiotensin II
A personality characteristic that includes a sense of having control over the env. Hardiness
Suppresses osteoblast activity, hematopoiesis, and protein synthesis Cortisol
Stimulates the adrenal gland to synthesize and secrete the glucocorticoid hormones ACTH
Factors used to create a new balance between a stressor and the ability to deal with it Coping mechanisms
cancer is a disorder of altered cell ______ and _____ Differentiation and Growth
The process of cell division results in cellular ______ Proliferation
_______ is the process of specialization whereby new cells acquire the structure and function of the cells they replace Differentiation
Proteins called _______ controls entry and progression of cells through the cell cycle Cyclins
Kinases are enzymes that _______ proteins Phosphorylate
Continually renewing cell population rely on ______ cells of the same lineage that have not yet differentiated to the extent that they have lost their ability to divide Progenitor
______ cells remain incompletely undifferentiated throughout life Stem
_______ stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the embryo Embryonic
Body organs and tissues are composed of two types of structures: _______ and ______ Parenchymal and Stromal
_______ are those that continue to divide and replicate throughout life, replacing cells that are continually being destroyed Labie cells
cells that are capable of undergoing regeneration when confronted with an appropriate stimulus and are thus capable of reconstituting the tissue of origin are termed _______ Stable
______ tissue is a glistening red, moist connective tissue that contains newly formed capillaries, proliferating fibroblasts, and residual inflammatory cells Granulation
The elderly have reduced _____ and _____ synthesis, impaired wound contraction, and slower reepithelialization of open wounds Collagen and Fibroblast
The ___________ is often born with immature organs systems and minimal energy stores but high metabolic requirements - a condition that predisposes to impaired wound healing Premature infant
Regulate leukocyte extraversion Endothelial cells
Process of cell division Proliferation
Swelling due to movement of fluid from vasculature into tissues Edema
Process of cell specialization Differentiation
Stem cells undergoing numerous mitotic division while maintaining an undifferentiated state space Renewal
Stimulator of vasodilation Nitric oxide
Leukocyte accumulation Margination
Activation affects vascular permeability Thrombocytes
Stimulate inflammatory reaction in response to injury or infection Mast cells
Defines the differentiation potential of stem cells Cellular potency
Created by: studying4life