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Adaptability of the Nervous System

What mechanism that allows continual learning but also prevents perfect performance? Microvariations/error
How do we learn a new movement Use idea of movement, previous experience, reflexes
Where are motor reflexes produced? In the central pattern generator
What are the four strategies to teaching a new/recovering a movement? Simplify the task into parts Go slow/optimum speed Co-contract the antagonist to stabilize Limit variables/stimulus (clutter)
What are the 5 main types of glia, and their function? Astrocyte-regulates the extra cellular space and nursemaid to the neuron Swan/Oligodendroyte-form myelin Microglia-consume dead tissue and foreign material Ependymal glia-line ventricles and the central canal Satellite/guide cell- growth cues
What are the 5 lobes of the brain? occipital, parietal, temporal, frontal, limbic
What are the 3 types of task practice, what kinds of activities are they good for training? 1.Whole training-the entire movement (continual tasks) 2.Progressive training/partial- serial tasks 3.Whole/partial training-continual tasks with discrete components
What function does the brainstem serve? The relay of info to the brain, regulation of vital functions like breathing, conciousness, and body temp
What are the anterior and posterior sides of the spinal cord responsible for? Ventral action, Dorsal sensation
What is the frontal lobe for? higher cognitive function, attention, voluntary movement, planning, decision making
What are the four areas of the frontal lobe? The prefrontal cortex, Orbitofrontal cortex, Motor and Pre-motor cortex, Brocca's area
What is the temporal lobe concerned with? Hearing and the integration of sensory information
What is the parietal lobe concerned with? The sensation of touch, pressure, and pain
What is the medula oblangata concerned with? vital functions such as respiration and heart rate
What does the pons do? Relays info between the hemispheres and the cerebellum
What are the two types of training scheduals? What are they good for? Mass practice-drill, back to back (good for one session, discrete skills) Distributed-Drill followed by reflection Good for complex/continuous activities
What is the limbic lobe responsible for? Sexual and emotional behavior
How do we train multiple skills, which is better? Block training, one activity at a time Random taining, different following activities Random is better, requires attention and concentration
What is the thalamus responsible for? Sensory gateway to the rest of the brain
What is the hypothalamus responsible for? It controls the visceral nervous system(organ and glandular), appetite, temperature thirst and the pituitary
What is the pineal gland responsible for? The biological clock
Why can "kissing it better" or "rubbing it" make it better? The pain gate theory: A sensory A Beta neuron stimulates an inhibitory pain interneuron
What are the parts of the upper brainstem? thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland
What are the 4 parts of the Lower brain stem? The pons, the medulla, the cerebellum, the spinal cord
What are the two general principles of motor learning? Error is necessary for learning We have an inherent need for self correction
What are the 7 key principles to Neuro placticity? 1.ACTIVE engagement 2.Contol is Distributed 3.Entire neuron and circuit adapts 4.Co-activity is essential 5.Optimum processing time 6.Learning is competitive 7.Skills are structural
What distributed areas are responsible for motor activity? The premotor cortex, supplemental motor area, basil ganglia, and cerebellum
How many cranial and spinal nerves are their? There are 12 pairs,31 pairs
What is the power law of practice? The more you practice the more you learn, repetition causes longterm changes
What is learned non-use? What is a way to prevent it? Weakness causes a cycle of lack of use and weakness. Force them to use via contraint
What are the two types of therapy? Deliberate-most relevant movements Unstructured-real world unguided
Describe the two types of synapse? Gap junction-direct cell to cell (rare) Chemical synapse-across a synapse with neurotransmitters
What produces myalin? Swann cells in the peripheral nervous system Oligodendrocites in the central nervous system
What 4 internal factors influence learning? Motivation-to keep trying Attention-input specificity & cooperativity Arousal-optimum amount Memory-good & bad experiences
What effect does MS have on the nervous system? The oligodendrocites die, myelin degenerates, action potentials stop, the cell redistributes ion channels, the signal slows, the cell dies
What 5 external factors effect learning? Enviromental context, The Task itself Type of reinforcer Practice schedual Type of practice
Mental rehersal is good for what kinds of activities? Planning activities that have been done before
What are the steps to neurotransmitter release? Action potential, calcium influx causes vessicles to releases neurotransmitter
What does a neurotransmitter do? Open channels on the post synaptic side for ions to enter
What determines if a neuron will achieve the threashold for an action potential The sum integration of all inhibitory and excitatory signals at the axon hillock
What are the two forms of excitatory and inhibitory summation? Spactial summation-all together at the same time Temporal summatation-frequency on stimuli build
What are the three types of ion channels? Ligand channels-chemical Voltage channels G-protein- neurotransmitter causes distant channel to remain open. (changes cell structure)
What are the three main types of neurotransmitters? Amino acid Amine Peptide
What are three amino acid neurotransmitters? Glutamate (MOST ABUNDANT), Glycine, GABA
What are two common amine neurotrasmitters? Dopamine Seratonin Norepinepherine
The main excitatory neurotransmitter and inhibitory neurotransmitter in pain pathway are what? Glycine-inhibitory Glutamate-excitatory
Neuron can modulate the activity of other neurons. Changing the properties, structures or function of neurons is called what? Placticity
Changing the behavior of a single neuron can cause a cascade of changes that ultimately may what? Lead to observable changes in the organism
How does a neuron respond to increased receptor use/modulate gene expression? Make the receptor more receptive Increase the number of receptors Change structure by increasing surface area
When a neuron is no longer recieving input from a primary input what may occure? 1. Unmasking-minor inputs exaggerate 2. Dendritic pruning of unused dendrites 3. Collateral sprouting recieving new input from another axon
What is the main mechanism for change in the brain? The growth of collaterals
What does collateral sprouting depend on? Increased activity, and vacancy
What three areas in the brain experience neurogenisis? The hypocampus-memory The subventricular zone-nose Somewhat in the cortex
What are the three steps to neurogenisis? Proliferation Migration Differentiation
What three cells can be created from a neural stem cell and what is most likely? Oligodendrocytes Astrocytes- most likely Neurons
Why is stem cell introduction into an adult brain perhaps unwise? Trouble synching with what's there Abnormal connections Differentiate mostly into astrocytes Can cause cancers and neuromas
What is the key component to motor learning? Feedback eg. Error detection
In order to be effective Feedback must be what? Relevant to the task, and properly timed
What type of feedback is best; hand over hand guidence, verbal or self? The best long term generalizabiliy comes from self problem solving alone
How should hand-over-hand guidence be used? Only a little given when they are 90% accurate
What is state dependent learning? The enviroment effects the ability to do a task
How are dendrites related to axonal collateralization? Dendrites release neurotropins which can only be taken up by an axon that is experiencing action potentials
What part of a neuron is activity dependent? Collateralization, Dendritic growth, number and activity of receptors, in summary the entire neuron
The growing end of an axon is called what? The growth cone or Philopodia
Growth over long distances may be encouraged or discouraged by what? Guiding cells
Neurotropins may have what effect? Attract some neurons and repel others
What are 4 common guidence molecules? Netrin attract Slit attract/repel Ephrin repel Semaphorin repel
What happens to neurons that have been damaged? Wallarian degeneration-the damaged axon is consumed Chromatolysis-the neuron is reorganized Retrograde degeneration-The presynapic neuron may retract-lack of use Andrograde degeneration-the Post synaptic neuron may die Transneural-nearby cells may be
How are emotions and cognition tied to plasticity/reward? Behaviors & thoughts processes that are rewarded undergo neural structural changes
What is hemoragic necrosis? Secondary CNS injury due to Inflamation and immuno Cytokines
What is ischemia? A lack of oxygen to tissue
What is transneuronal degeneration? The secondary injury of nearby neurons to an injury site
What are the steps of transneuronal degeneration? A glial scar forms, followed by demylination of surrounding neurons
What is the function of a glial scar? A mechanical barrier separating damaged tissue and preventing neuronal growth
What chemical inhibitors are released by Glial scars? CSPG, Semaphorin, Ephrin
How quickly does a peripheral neuron regrow? What does this allow? 1-4mm/ day, prediction of return to function day
What type of neurons regrow, which is fastest? Peripheral motor and sensory, sensory
What differences exist between the PNS and CNS in neural regeneration? Oligodendricytes release growth inhibitors in the CNS, but encourage growth in the PNS. Glial scars form in the CNS but not the PNS
What problems can occure with PNS regrowth? The axons may cross and go to the wrong tissues, It can growth back into a coiled ball-Neuroma (pain)
What neurotrasmitter is key to the trasmission of pain in the CNS and what two are critical to inhibiting pain? Glutamate is excitatory, Glycine and Seratonin (5ht are inhibitory
What three factors prevent CNS regeneration? Oligodendricytes release inhibitors Astrocytes inhibit as glial scar Small amount growth factors
What method of CNS regeneration has the most evidence? axon collateralization-use of cells to cause specialized change, use of concurrent systems,
What is the difference between learning and memory? Aquiring new information-neural conduction, Storage and recall of information-structural changes
What is pain? Pain is a learned association/perception of nocioceptor information
What are the two types of memory? Declaritive-concious what you can say you know Non-declaritive-skills
Where is declaritive memory located? The medial temporal lobe, diacephalon in the hippocampus
Where is non-declaritive memory located? Basal ganglia, striatum, cerebellum, amygdala
What are the two types of non-declaritive memory? Procedural-striatum Conditioned cerebellum(muscle) Emotional-amygdala
What are the two types of learning? Associative, Non associative
What is non associative learning, what are two examples? Single stimulus changing behavior Habituation Sensitization
What is associative learning? what are two examples? Two or more stimuli combine to change behavior Operant conditioning-Action=reward or punishment Classical conditioning-stimulus plus reward or punishment
What are the three types of pain nocioceptors and what do they pick up on? 'A' Delta fibers-temp, deformation (sudden pain) 'C' Fibers-any kind of change (dull ache) 'A' Beta- Tactile/location
What is Allodynia? What is Hyperalgesia? Sensation of localized pain when non present (eg. touch a sunburn), Hypersensitivity to pain
What is the beginning of the spinal cord? Where does it end? The foramen magnum, L1/ L2 Conus medularis
What are the three types of pain? Acute (sharp) Persistant (tissue damage) Chronic (unceasing despite no damage)
How does the opiod system suppress pain? Endorphins and 5HT are released by the interneuron, opening potassium ion channels, inhibiting the pain transmission
What does the anterior median fissure mark in the spinal column? The separation between the left and right white matter
Pain suppression cannot occure without what neurotransmitter? 5HT, Seratonin
What does the hammer on the knee test? How many nerves are there? Myostatic reflex, 2-one afferent one efferent.
What neurons sense and bring in incomming information? And what neurons stimulate muscles and organs? Afferent information, Efferent
What is chronic pain? unrelieved persistant pain despite no tissue damage
What neurons convey from afferent to efferent neurons? Interneurons
Interneurons can be what two types? Facilitory or inhibitory
Why is surgery often ineffective at reducing pain? Pain sensation is distributed in the brain Persistant pain causes collateral growth to other areas
A Hemisection of the spinal cord for limb pain causes what? Loss of sensation and motor control in BOTH limbs
What is spacticity? An increase resistance in stretch reflex An increase in tone
Afferent fibers from the lower body to the upper body are laid down how in the spinal column? Laterally to more on the way up medially
What spinal tract is responsible for pain and temperature? The Acending Lateral Spinothalamic tract
What effect does habituation have on the nerve? repeated exposure decreases response: Excititory stimulus is less, There is less gulutamate release Calcium channels are less active
What effect does sensitization have on the nerve? Repeated exposure increases response: The cell releases more neurotransmitter A larger/longer action potential occures Calcium channels become more active
Diseases that cause spacticity usually have what 5 symptoms? Increase tendon reflex Unmasking of developemental reflexes Increase co-contraction Decrease in reciprical inhibition Abnormal contractions
What is the difference between habituation and Longterm Depression? Depression is structural changes (retraction of inputs), habituation is just temporary
What is the difference between long term potentiation and sensitization? Long term associative learning is structural changes(growth of new inputs), sensitization is just temporary
Paring of a normal physiological reaction and sensory information is called what? Classical conditioning
In classical conditioning, what is the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus? The unconditioned stimulus is the normal physiologic stimulus. Thu conditioned stimulus is the sensory stimulus unrelated to anything
From a neuronal perspective why does the pairing of stimulus occure/why is possible? Because calcium is already going into the cell, while G-protiens are active, AMPA will go up increasing activity in the cell and cellular changes
What is memory and learning? Memory-Persistent changes in neuronal structure Learning is synaptic transmission changes
*****How does synaptic transmission/learning occur? Intercellur messengers (g-protiens) Increase in Calcium*
What are the three nerve fibers in the cerebellum and what do they do? Climbing fibers-transmit movement information Mossy fibers transmit-the expected movement perkinji fibers-Recieve signals from both and send error signals when they don't match Parellel fibers-Learn and show plastic changes
When does learning occure in the cerebellum occure and why? Only when climbing and parellel fibers simultaneously fire and AMPA receptors are deactivated
When does a perkinji fiber send an error signal? When the incomming stimulus is simultaneous
What is the difference between declaritive and non declearitive memory? Declaritive you can describe/remember, Non-declaritive you cannot
Describe the lateral spinothalamic tract and what information it carries: Nocioceptor transmits to posterior horn, cross in the spine, inhibited by the reticular formation and periaqueductal grey, transmitted to the Post central gyrus, somatosensory cortex (concious awareness) and the PO region of the thalamus
What is Hyperalgesia? What is Alhondonia? Hypersensitivity to pain. Inability to experience pleasure
There are two meathods of long term potentiation/memory, what are they? Temporal summationnincreasing the frequency of stimulation (study all the time) Cooperative stimulation-Increasing the number/amount of stimulation (using many differnent senses associated with the learning eg. rose-neuro)
Errors in learning/association are called what, and how do they occure? Aphasia, when incorrect information/stimulation is paired together. (Eg. Neuro is paired with a green pen, but you write in red)
What three peripheral pain signals can be controlled and with what methods? Prostaglandins (IBuporophin), Histones (Antihistamines), Nonsteriodals (substance p)
How does longterm potentiation/memory occur in the hyppocampus? When the neuron is depolarized AND NMDA receptors are opened. Ligand and Voltage gated Calcium enters and more AMPA receptors produced.
How can a depolarization cause longterm depression OR longterm potentiation? Both cause an influx of Calcium, but a highfrequency or long depolarization can activate enough enzymes to cause activation of enzymes
What enzyme is responsible for memory and which is responsible for forgetting and what effect do they have? Kinase-memory, increase AMPA Phosphatase-forgetting, decrease AMPA It is this balance that causes longterm changes
If a peripheral nerve is severed and has to regrow 1cm, how long will this take? 2.5-10 days
What pathway transmits localized soft epicatic touch, and joint capsule information? The Posterior Column
Damage to what tract will cause spacticity and motor problems? The motor cortical spinal tract
What acending/decending area of the CNS nerves are particularly vulnerable to injury? Internal capsule
Efferent decending fibers cross to the otherside of the body where in the medulla? Decussation of the pyramids
Describe what the posterior column does and what kind of information it transmits: Epicatic and Kinestesis (touch and joint) information crosses at the spine and in the medulla oblongata, to the Post central gyrus
The cell bodies for the efferent neurons are where? The anterior horn of the spinal column
The afferent spinal nerve bodies are where? dorsal root ganglion outside the spinal column
Describe the posterior column and what information it carries Joint capsular (kinesthesis) and touch (epicatic) information, crosses in the spinal cord, to the post central gyrus
The extrapyramidal pathway is responsibel for what? Individual motor acts
A reflex involving more than two neurons is called what? A poly synaptic reflex
What tract is responsible for touch? The Anterior spinothalamic tract
Describe the Lateral Spinothalamic tract and what information it carries? Nocioception, crosses in the spinal cord, is regulated by the reticularformation and the periaqueductal grey and is transmitted to the secondary sensory cortex, post central gyrus and PO region of the thalamus
Describe the Anterior Spinothalamic tract and what information it carries? Touch information, crosses in the spine, ascends to the Postcentral gyrus
What pathway transmits Pain and temperature information? The lateral spinothalamic tract
What pathway tranmits touch information? The Anterior spinothalamic tract
What is the difference between reflexes and reactions? Reflexes: Simple automatic movements requiring no concious input Reactions:complex movement requiring conciousness
Describe the posterior spinocerebellar and cuneocerellar tract and what kind of information they carry? Position and movement of muscles up the same side of the body to the cerebellum
Control of major brain functions are located where? Distributed control, thoughout the brain
Complex motor reflexes and repetative rythmic movements are produced where? In the central pattern generator?
What spinal tracts carry muscle position and movement information up the spinal column? The posterior cerebellar tract and the cuneocerellar tract
Three areas that are responsible for motor control are what? Premotor cortex, supplemental motor area, cerebellum
State of arousal is located where? Reticular formation
What is the reticular formation's job? Initiate and regulate movement at the central pattern generator
Describe the Anterior and Rostral spinocerebellar tracts and what information they carry: The rostral carries upper limb, the anterior carries lower limb location and movement information, crosses in the spinal column, up to the superior cerebellum
What is the cerebellum responsible for? coordination and sequencing of movement (smooth motion)
Motor movement disorders often are a result of what? cerebellum disorders
Discordinated movement and tremors is called what Ataxia
The fact that all systems are distributed, in the greater picture means what? You cannot isolate behavior to one part of the brain
What are the 3 requirments to any motor task? Power, Accuracy, Speed
How are accuracy and speed related? There is an optimum, too slow or too fast decreases accuracy
What are the two mechanisms of a Hyperalgesia and Aldenia: pain positive feedback plastic changes? Peripheral:nocioceptor releases substance P, mast cells release histones- cause swelling. Histones+ swelling stimulate other nocioceptors. Synaptic: Glutamate + Substance P increase Post AMPA receptors making more likely to detect glutamate
What are the two methods of down regulating pain? Sensory Gate: Tactile 'B' fiber excits an inhibitory interneuron The Opiod system-stress releases endorphins and 5HT which decreases pain
Describe the Cortical spinal tract and what it is responsible for? Voluntary motor control, decends from the Primary motor cortex, crosses at the decussion of pyramids in the medulla, stimulates the motor neuron
What is the definition of a decision? Wheneverf a neuron is activated and makes a decision to fire
What spinal tract is responsible for voluntary muscle control? the cortical spinal tract
What are the 6 steps to VOLUNTARY control of movement, or engage in a behavior? Signal-Decision to act-Plan-Program-Execution-Error detection and correction
What part of VOLUNTARY movement would OT be involved in? The plan-what kind of things they will do The program-what order and sequence of muscles used The execution-how fast, or force produced
******Pain is registered in what parts of the brain? The thalamus-the PO region The lateral fissure-secondary sensory cortex
What is another name for mixed pathways? Extrapyramidal pathway
Afferent nerve cell bodies are located where? the spinal ganglia
Where are the cell bodies of the motor neurons located? Anterior horns
What does the primary motor cortex control? Voluntary motor movement
What are terminal fibers? Interneurons between the decending CNS tract and efferent neurons
Mixed pathways/extra pyramidal pathways control what? Individual motor acts
What does the superior colliculus control? Visual reflexes
What does the accessory occular motor nuclei do? Visual tracking
What are the two mixed spinal tracts? Midial longtitudinal and the Vestibulo pathways
What are the 5 parts of the brain stem caudal(inferior) to rostal? Spinal cord, medulla, pons, midbrain, dicephalon
The cranial nerves are part of what structure? The brainstem
What are the 12 cranial nerves? OLd OPie OCcasionally TRies TRIGonometry And Feels VEry GLOomy, VAGUe, And HYPOactive olfactory, optic, occular, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, Vagus, Accessory, Hypoglossal
What do legions to the anterior lobe of the cerebellum cause what? Disturbances in extensor muscle tone and posture
The posterior lobe legions of the cerebellum do what? Respiratory and cardiac distress
Legions to the neo-cerebellum cause what? Tremor
How is the brainstem attached/connected to the brainstem? Three major fiber tracts or peduncles
The cerebellar tract responsible for connecting skilled motions from the cerebrum to cerebellum? Ponto cerebellar tract
Lesion to the cyngulate gyrus cause what? Contant arousal
Pain receptors use what kind of inhibitors? Opiods
What are 3 pain nocioceptors (neurons)? Sharp pain-delta fibers Prolongued burning pain-C fibers
Pain afferent neurons release what neuro transmitter substance? Substance P (for pain), Glutamate
Pain is conducted to what track of the spinal cord? The lateral spinothalamic tract
Pain is inhibited by what areas of the brain first? The cerebral cortex, reticular formation
What medications act as pain inhibitors? Morphine, codine, demerol
What natural substances are really effective at inhibiting pain? Eukephalins, and Endorphins, 5HT
What cranial nerve is responsible for smell? The olfactory nerve
What cranial nerve is responsible for vision optic
What cranial nerve is responsible for eye movement? Occular motor
What is the trochlear responsible for? eye movements
What cranial nerve is responsible for mastication, sense to face and nose? Trigeminal
What is the abducens nerve responsible for? Eye movement
What nerve is responsible for facial, salivation and test? The facial nerve
The nerve responsible hearing and equalibrium? Vestibulocochlear
The nerve responsible for the pharynx and larynx? Vagus
What nerves stimulate the neck muscles? Accessory nerve
What cranial nerve stimulates the tongue? The hypoglossal
What does the anterior cerebral artery supply? The medial, parietal, frontal brain, and corpus colossum
What does the middle cerebral artery supply? The lateral surfaces frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe
What does the basilar artery supply? the occipital lobe.
What 2 spinal tracts integrates limb information and movement? The Anterior spinocerebellar tract-Lower body The Rostral spinocerebellar tract-Upper body
Describe the transmission of information in the 2 spinocerebellar tracts: The Anterior conducts lower limb info, the Rostal conducts upper limb info, it crosses int the spine and is conducted to the cerebellum
Decribe the the Corticospinal tract and the information it conducts: Transmission from the primary motor cortex, information crosses in the medulla at the decussion of the pyramids and stimulates a motor neuron
What are the two mixed spinal pathways and what do they do? Vestibular spinal tract-equalibrium reactions Extra pyramidal pathway-individual motor acts
Describe the Tectospinal tract and what it does? crosses at midbrain, responsible for visual following
Describe the Rubrospinal tract and what it is responsible for: transmits from the red nucleaus, regulated by the cerebellum, crosses at thoracic spine, responsible for flexor tone
Describe the two reticulospinal tracts and what they are responsible for: The pontine reticulospinal tract-evervates the muscle spindle The medullar reticularspinal tract inhibits smooth muscles
What tract in the spine is responsible for voluntary motor control? The cortical spinal tract
What spinal tract is responsible for equalibrium righting reactions? The Vestibulospinal tract
What tract in the spine is responsible for individual motor acts? The extrapyramidal pathway
What tract is responsible for visual following? The Tectospinal tract
What tract in the spine is responsible for the tone of the flexors? The rubrospinal tract
What tract is responsible for enervating the muscle spindle? The Pontine reticulospinal tract
What tract is responsible for inhibiting smooth muscles? The medullar reticulospinal tract
What are the 6 stages by which spacticity occurs? 1. Decrease inhibition 2. Increase stretch reflex 3. Muscle and nerve Potentiation 4. Disfunctional Collateralization 5. Unpredicatable movements 6. Contracture and cycles cont...
What are 4 best ways of managing spacticity and contractions? 1. Stretching- increases inhibition in the spine, ROM, and voluntary movement. 2.Local muscle relaxants (eg. botox) 3. Motor training-neuroplasic increase in decending control 4. Orthotics-only to allow proper stretching and motor training
What is the most common problem with orthotics? People use them to compensate and becom reliant
During neurotransmission, what type of ion channel produces an excitatory postsynaptic potential? Ligand gated sodium channels
The Best Outcome of neural recovery is from what? Collateral sprouting
What are the 7 Key principles of Neuroplacticity? 1. Use it to impove it or lose it 2. Specificity vs. Transference 3. Repetition 4. Age=plasitc 5. Interference 6. Motivation&Expectation=improvement 7. Feedback is necessary
Created by: swcherry



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