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A&P chp 1, 2

Quiz 9/13/11

What is physiology? The science of body functions and how the body parts work
What is anatomy? The science of body structure and the relationships among them as revealed by dissection
What are the levels of structural organization in the human body? 1. Chemical level 2. Cellular level 3. Tissue level 4. Organ level 5. System level 6. Organismal level
What is inspection? (noninvasive diagnostic technique) Observation
What is palpation? (noninvasive diagnostic technique) Feeling surface of the body
What is auscultation? (noninvasive diagnostic technique) Listening
What is percussion? (noninvasive diagnostic technique) Tapping on the body listening for echoing
What are the 6 characteristics of the living human organism? (most important life processes) 1. Metabolism 2. Responsiveness 3. Movement 4. Growth 5. Differentiation 6. Reproduction
What is metabolism? (characteristic of living human organism) the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body catabolism - the breakdown of complex chemicals into simpler components anabolism - the building up of complex chemical substances from simpler components
What is responsiveness? (characteristic of living human organism) The body's ability to detect and respond to changes
What is movement? (characteristic of living human organism) Motion of the whole body, including individual organs, cells and tiny structures inside cells
What is growth? (characteristic of living human organism) The increase in body size
What is differentiation? (characteristic of living human organism) The development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state
What is reproduction? (characteristic of living human organism) the formation of new cells or the production of a new individual
What is homeostasis? A condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's regulatory processes *First described by French physiologists, 1813-1878 **Process named by Walter Cannon, 1871-1945
What is intracellular fluid (ICF)? The fluid within cells
What is extracellular (ECF)? The fluid outside cells; the fills narrow spaces between cells of tissues is known as interstitial fluid
What is a feedback system (feedback loop)? The cycle of the body monitoring, evaluating, and reevaluating itself
What are the components of a feedback loop? 1. Receptor 2. Control Center 3. Effector
What is a receptor? (components of feedback system) Monitors changes in a controlled condition
What is a control center? (components of feedback system) Determines next action
What is an effector? (components of feedback system) Receives output from the control center and produces a response or effect
What does a negative feedback system do? Reverses a change in a controlled condition
What does a positive feedback system do? Strengthen or reinforces a change in a controlled condition
What are the homeostatic imbalances? 1. Disorder 2. Disease
What is a disorder? (homeostatic imbalances) Any abnormality of structure or function
What is a disease? (homeostatic imbalances) A specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms
What is anatomical position? (definition and body placement) standardized method of observing the body; body facing forward with palms up
What are the principal regional names? 1. Head 2. Neck 3. Trunk 4. Upper limbs 5. Lower limbs
What are chemical elements? Limited amount of building blocks that make up all forms of matter
What is a chemical symbol? One or two letters of the element's name in English, Latin, or another language
What make up the elements of the body? 26 elements are present in the body; just four constitute about 96% - oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen (major elements)
What is an atom? The smallest unit of matter
What are the main subatomic particles? 1. Protons 2. Neutrons 3. Electrons
What are electron shells? Orbitals that surround the nucleus with a designated amount of electrons within each orbital
What is the atomic number of an element? Number of protons
What is the mass number of an element? Sum of its protons and neutrons
What are isotopes? Atoms of an element that have different number of neutrons, therefore different mass numbers
What is the atomic mass of an element? How much it weighs
What is an ion? An atom with a positive or negative charge because it has unequal number of protons and electrons
What is a molecule? When two or more atoms share electrons
What is a compound? Substance that contains atoms of two or more different elements
What is a valence shell? The outermost shell of an atom and the number of electrons within it to make it likely to combine with another chemical bond
What is the octet rule? The principle that only 8 electrons can share an outer valence shell
What are ionic bonds? The outermost shell of an atom and the number of electrons within it to make it likely to combine with another chemical bond
What are cations? Positively charged ions
What are anions? Negatively charged ions
What is an electrolyte? An ionic compound that breaks apart into positive and negative ions
What is a covalent bond? When two or more atoms share electrons rather than gain or loose them
What is a single covalent bond? When two atoms share one pair of electrons
What is a double covalent bond? When two atoms share two pairs of electrons
What is a triple covalent bond? When two atoms share three pairs of electrons
What are nonpolar covalent bonds? When the attraction of electrons between two similar atoms are equal
What are polar covalent bonds? When the attraction of electrons are unequal ie: carbon and oxygen (greater electronegativity) atoms
What is electronegativity? The power to attract electrons to itself
How is a hydrogen bond formed? When hydrogen that is partial positive attracts to a partial negative charged atom
What is surface tension? The measurement of difficulty to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
Created by: deboni59



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