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Enabling occupation accross the lifespan

What are the two Pediatric approaches? What is the key difference? Neuromaturational and Dynamic Systems Movements and Muscles vs. Occupations
What is a Microsystem vs. Exosystem? Immediately influence the person (family) Distant influences on the person (Neighbors)
What is family centred therapy? 1. Recognize family influence 2. Promote family's unique pattern 3. Family collaboration on therapy 4. Positive support of family
What is neuromaturation theory(2)? What are it's flaws (2)? Neurodevelopement is sequential, and at the same rate for all. Enviromental interaction and individual variation
What is the Zone of proximal developement? the distance between independent problem solving and guided problem solving
What is Dynamic System theory? Many internal and external factors of the individual and enviroment interact to influence development.
What is Motor control the ablility to regulate and direct movement
What are 4 example of bottom up approaches to correct motor dysfunction are are they effective? Sensory integration Neurodevelopment Strenght training perceptual motor training No. Not effective
Motor control is far behind what you would expect for their age or IQ would suggest? Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)
How would dynamic theory be applied to therapy and is it effective? Variety of real meaningful occupations, with the movements taught as a whole, with lots of variety and problem solving in the you don't teach throwing a baseball segments at a time
What is an Attractor state? Habits of movement
Making a maladaptive attractor state difficult or uncomfortable is called what? Preturbation
Motor skill developement involves what three interteracting processes? Cognition, perception, action
What are the three stages of motor skill developement? 1. Cognitive-inconsistent and inefficient 2. Associative- refinement toward outcome 3. Autonomous- functional, automatic
What order does movement develope in babies? Cephalo-Caudal, Gross-precise, Proximal-distal, Undifferentialted-specific.
The developement of movement of one limb at a time is called what? Disassociation
What are early relfexes? When should they begin to disappear? Survival responses in the brainstem and spinal cord. 4-6 months of age
Why would you test early reflexes? What is a common one? Indication of neurological integrity, developeme. Postural reactions
What are equalibrium reactions? The attempt to maintain centre of gravity inside the base of support
What 4 reactions all contribute to maintain postural control in infants? Reflex reactions, righting reactions, equalibrium reactions, protective reactions
What is the sequence of development of movement in infants? physiological flexion, active extension, active flexion and rotation, disassociation of movement, weight shift
When assessing movement in infants, what should be observed? Weight shifting, base of support, control, mobility with stabilility, disassociation
From 0-12 months what are the stages of development of movement? Neonatal-primitive reflexes 0-4 months-Head control, weight shift 4-8 months- Bilateral movements, Weight shift, Rotation 8-12 months- Rotation, Dissassociation, Movement
That are the stages of maturation of gait? Immature: High arms, wide appart feet, anterior pelvic tilt, short steps, Intermediate: arms at side, base in pelvis, heel/toe step, Mature: swing arms, narrow base, relaxed stride, trunk rotation
What is postural control? The act of maintaining, or restoring balance not just do to CNS
Postural control is made of what three types of movement? Maintenence of posture Voluntary movement Reacting
What is tasting, banging, waving, play play called? Sensorimotor play
What is playing with dolls, tea sets, trucks called? Object or pretend play
What are the three main types of play called? Dramatic/symbolic play Constructive play Rough and tumble (eg. jumping & rolling)
How are position and balance sequenced? Prone, Supine, Sitting, Quadruped, Standing
What are the four treatment views of childhood learning/writing intervention? Biomechanical Neurodevelopemental Aquisition Sensory motor integration
What is an example of biomechanical/neurodevelopemental intervention? Sitting posture,elbow position
What is an example of Aquisitional intervention? The focusing on the sequence of training
What is an example of sensory motor intervention? Bright colors, thicker, heavier/lighter supplies
What is a standardized test, how many types are there? On which is performed the same each time. Two types Criterion, and Normative
What is a norm referenced test? What is the problem with using norm referenced tests with children? A group is compared to a known sample. It usually doesn't include children with disabilities or developement issues
How is the mean calculated? The sum of the values divided by the number of values
How is the median value calculated? It's the numerically ordered central value
How is the variance calculated? The sum of the values minus the mean then squared then divided by the number of values
How is the z-score calculated? The value minus the mean then divided by the standard deviation
How is the T-score calculated? 10 times the zed score plus 50
How is percentile score calculated? The number scores below the score plus half the number at the score divided by the total number X 100%
How is reliability calculated? the standard deviation minus the retest coefficient then obtain the square root`
How is the inter-rater reliability calculated? Taking the number of agreed items and dividing it by the total number of items then multiplying the outcome by 100
What is a standard deviation? How far the scores range
What is a z score? The score in reference to the mean
Age equivelent score is what? How is it misleading? The age 50% of children are at or below the score. A score of less then 50% can still be normal
What is a correlation coefficient? the strength of the relationship negative is inverse, positive is direct and 0 is non
What is the maximum and minimum correlation coefficient? +1 or -1, and 0
What is validity? The test measures what it's meant to
What are the 4 types of validity? Construct validity, content-validity, criterion validity, and Rasch analysis
What is construct validity? Measures a theoretical construct
What is content validity? Measure how a few things related to a larger group
What is criterion validity? Measuring agains other tests
What are the 5 approaches to improving childhood handwriting? Neural develmental-posture and movements Aquisitional-practice Biomechanical-ergonomics Sensory motor- engaging other senses Psychosocail-rewards and enjoyment
What are extraneous movements in other limbs called when performing an action? Associative reactions or mirror reactions
Visual perception involves what two processes? Sensory and Cognitive Processes
What is a Receptive component? extracting and organizing infomation
What is visual fixation? the ability to focus on stationary objects
What is visual fixation? the ability to focus on stationary objects
What does the dorsal stream of vision control? Location, shape
What does the dorsal stream of vision control? Location, shape
What does the ventral stream of vision control? Color, name, details
When do early relfexes become a constraint function? It's obligitory, and persists after age
When do early relfexes become a constraint function? It's obligitory, and persists after age
Movement choice is influenced by what 3 factors? The abilities of the child, the task, the environment
Movement choice is influenced by what 3 factors? The abilities of the child, the task, the environment
What perceptual skill allows us to predict weight, texture and grasp? Haptic Perception
What perceptual skill allows us to predict weight, texture and grasp? Haptic Perception
What are the 5 stages of reach? 1. Reach with eyes 2. symmetrical 3. unilateral 4. mature 5. refined
What are the 3 stages of release? 1. Involuntary, 2. Transfer grasp, 3. Voluntary release
What are the 6 stages of inhand manipulation? 1. Finger to palm 2. palm to finger 3. shift distal/proximal 4. rotation 5. complex rotation 6. rotation with stabilizatin
What functional prehension skills should we look for in children? 1. play 2. Inhand manipulation 3. drawing/prewriting 4. handwriting 5. utensil use 6. fasteners
What is prehension? Functional use of the arms and hands
What 5 things might we examine with children learning to use scissors/writing/pasting? 1. Posture 2. Grasp 3. Bilateral 4. In hand manipulation 5. Sensory abilities
What functional prehension skills should we look for in children? 1. play 2. Inhand manipulation 3. drawing/prewriting 4. handwriting 5. utensil use 6. fasteners
What 4 kinds of prehansion skill are part of play birth-10 months? 1. Grasp 2. Reach 3. Release/Placement 4. Bilateral
What 5 things might we examine with children learning to use scissors/writing/pasting? 1. Posture 2. Grasp 3. Bilateral 4. In hand manipulation 5. Sensory abilities
What is and excellent source of developemental info? Parents and teachers
What 4 things need to be considered before intervention? 1. Parent/Teacher expectations 2. What role OT to play 3. Resources available at home 4. Meaning to child
What are 6 common factors limiting school performance? 1. hand function 2. neuromuscular 3. sensory ability 4. cognition 5. development 6. the environment
What 3 factors are required for using scissors? Developental age, Hand skills ect..., Hand preference
What is the peabody used for? Comparing motor developement, birth-6 ages
What is the BOT (Buiniks-Oseretsk) used for? Measure Gross and Fine motor skills 4-21 yrs
Waht is the AIMS used for? Gross motor skills 0-18months
What is the M-Fun used for? Motor occupation involvement and limitations ages 2-8
What is a standardization assessment? One in which is always performed uniformily differentiate pathologic, immature, from typical
What rules apply to age calculation? Months are assumed to have 30 days Months are rounded up from 15 days
Basil and ceiling scores allow what? shorten a test by assuming pass of earlier, Find ceiling scores
What are the two types of assessment tests? Criterion-compares against a standard Norm refereced-on a normal curve
When comparing children against a norm referenced test what caution should be observed? Were disabilities in the norm, what is the sample size
What does a standard score allow? Comparison and conversion between tests
What measure of child performance should never be put in a report to parents? Age equivilency, percentile rank, or total motor score
Along with standard score, what else should always be calculating for interpreting the score? The standard error +- 2 standard deviations
Children within _________standard dev are considered developmentally normal? 2 standard deviations
What is CP? Non-progressive neurolical impairment of motor, sensation, congnitive, communicative, or behavior systems and/or epilepsy
What are the main types of CP? Spastic-stiff muscles Athetoid-uncontrolled/floppy movement Ataxia-shaking Mixed-combined disorders
What are 3 types of spastic CP? Unilateral-same side Bilateral-two legs Quad/tetraplegia-Most or all of the body
What are the three types of Athetoid? Hypertonic Hyperkinetic Whole body Athetoid
What are the areas affected by ataxia? appendicular or truncal
What are the two classification systems used for CP? Gross motor functional classification system Manual Ability Classification System
What is muscle tone? The ease a muscle can be stretched
What is clonus? involuntary contractions and relaxations
What is dystonia? Resistance to slow stretch
What does the GMFC measure vs. the MACS? Walking ability vs. Hand use
What is stabismus? Lazy or crossed eye
What is nystagmus? Rapid uncontrolled movements of eyes
What is cortical blindness? Blind do to occipital lobe
What are key indicators a child may have a visual problem? Can't track with eyes and head, fixate and ignore details, school work
What is perception? Awareness and interpretation
What are the 5 components of Visual Discrimination? Recognition, Matching, Categorization, Object perception, Spacial perception
What is & what age does laterality develope? Realizing you have a left and right, age 7
What is directionality? THINGs have a right and left
Visual-motor integration, is good for what but bad for what? Good for assessing handwriting readiness in kindergarden, but not school achievement later
What is the best predictor of handwriting legibility? Motor planning
What does the Beery test? Perception, motor control and voluntary motor integration
What is cognition? All mental functions
Learning requires what 4 skills? Automatization, Encoding (key aspects), Generalization (to circumstances), Strategy construction
How does cognition change with time? More efficient, Increased memory capacity, More effective inhibition, Increased automacity, increased speed of processing
What key factors effect cognition? Structural capacity-physical ability Personal capacity Self awareness Activity demands Processing strategies Enviromental factors
What is the first step of assessment used for? For identifying school related problems
What is receptive language? understanding language
What age does complex thought and internal monologue develope? Age 7
Before assessing cognition what needs to be done? Inform parents about the consequences of labels
What is an open skill? In an open and unpredicatvle enviroment
What is a closed skill? self-paced predictable skill
What are the 4 major socail development tasks? Recognize self, Empathy, Morality/values, Consequences
What are the 4 responses to frustration? Passive, aggression physical, verbal aggression, socailly acceptable behavior
What behavior 4 interventions can correct social behaviors? Positive opposites-state alternatives Shift focus-to what's wanted Prais-good behavior Time out
How long should time out be for children? 1 min for each year
What are 6 examples of socail cognitive ability? Language comprehension, Perspective taking, Hypothesis formation, Inference making, Casual attribution, Social rule comprehension
What social skill developes at 24 months? Self awareness
What socail skill developes 6-11 years? Interaction with others
How does efficacy interact with importance for self esteem? If bad at an unimportant skill, very little. if bad an an important skill a lot.
What is the most influential factor on self efficacy?; Past performance
What are the ages and stages of friendship? Momentary playmates-3-7 Oneway assistance 4-9 Two way fair weather 6-12 Intimate mutual 9-15 Matur relationship 12+
What do peers provide that adults don't? Leader follower roles, other perspective, deal with aggression,
What social developemental tasks are between 12-18? Sexuality, Identity Individual values
What is success? Being happy, achieving personal realistic goals
What are methods of motivation? Fun Games, Choice, Match their style
What are ways to intervene in an adolecent behavior problems? Role play, practice responses, self time outs, reflection
Created by: swcherry
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