Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

BIOL4344-CH 2

Chapter 2 terms Pathophysiology

How do normals cells respond to changes in environment, both internal or externally? Cellular Adaptation
Term that describes cell shrinkage due to fewer organelles (Rough ER, mitochondria, cytoskeleton) that causes decreased protein synthesis Atrophy
Normal cellular atrophy Physiologic Atrophy e.g. shrinkage of thymus gland, shinkage of cells from aging, shinkage of muscle cells fromvoluntary disuse
Abnormal cellular atrophy Pathologic atrophy caused by forced disuse (broken bone cause muscle cell atrophy) or from disease like Alzheimers
Term describing cell growth by increase in organelles through production or by decreases in the degradation cycle of a cell. Not caused by increase in fluid. Hypertrophy
Normal cellular Hypertophy Physiologic hypertrophy caused by increased load on muscle cells (working out)
Abnormal cellular Hypertrophy Pathologic hypertrophy e.g. cellular damage to lungs increases the load on the heart causing Hypertrophy of the cardiac cells to obtain proper oxygen levels
Increase in the number of cells, either by increased cellular proliferation or decrease in cell death, can be caused by injury that is severe enough to cause cell death Hyperplasia
Normal Hyperplasia Physiologic Hyperplasia like development of the endometrium during mensturation (Hormonal hyperplasia) or regeneration of the liver (compensatory hyperplasia)
Normal adaptive mechanism that enables certain organs to regenerate. e.g. liver, but can NOT happen in the nerve, skeletal muscle, mycardial cells or lens cells of eyes Compensatory hyperplasia
Normal adaptive mechanism that occurs in cheifly estrogen dependent organs (uterus or breast) Hormonal Hyperplasia, e.g. build up of the endometrium (normal unless caused by estrogen and progesterone secretion imbalances)
Abnormal proliferation of normal cells in response to excessive hormonal stimulation or the effects of groth factors on target cells Pathologic Hyperplasia e.g. excessive build up of the endometrium from hormonal imbalances which cause hyperplastic endometrial cells that can transform into malignant cells "pre-cancerous"
Abnormal changes to the size, shape, & orgaization of mature cells. Not considered a true adaptive cellular response Dysplasia aka atypical hyperplasia e.g. \can be indicated in an abnormal PAP smear. Also can frequently occur in the epithelial tissue of the respiratory tract
Reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another. Metaplasia
Reversible replacement of the normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchials with squamous epithelial cells Bronchial Metaplasia - can be caused by smoking and is reversible if the perso stops smoking.
Occurs if when a cell is unable to maintain homeostasis, either i a normal or an adaptive steady state- in the face of injurous stimuli e.g. exposure to toxic chemicals, infections & hypoxia Cellular injury
Type of cellular injury from which cells can recover. Loss of ATP, cellular swelling, detachment of ribosomes, autophagy of lysosomes Reversible cellular injury
Type of cellular injury in which cells die. Point of no return structurally when severe vacuolization of the mitochondria occures & Ca++ moves into the cell Irreversible injury
Decreased level of oxygen delivery to tissue. most commonly caused by ischemia Hypoxia
An electrically uncharged atom or molecule that has an unpaired electron Free Radical, includes Hydroxy radicals,
Common type of cell death with severe swelling & breakdown of organelles Necrosis
Cellular celf-destruction for elimination of unwanted cell populations, a type of programmed cell death Apoptosis
Catalytic enzymes (proteins) that breakdown cell components by breaking down cytoskeleton causing release of apoptic bodies Casphases
Cellular self digestion that does not cause immune reaction because it remains in a membrane, causes production of autolysosomes, no casphases are produced Autophagy
Created by: cbryan3



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards