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BIOL4344-CH 2

Chapter 2 terms Pathophysiology

QuestionAnswer
How do normals cells respond to changes in environment, both internal or externally? Cellular Adaptation
Term that describes cell shrinkage due to fewer organelles (Rough ER, mitochondria, cytoskeleton) that causes decreased protein synthesis Atrophy
Normal cellular atrophy Physiologic Atrophy e.g. shrinkage of thymus gland, shinkage of cells from aging, shinkage of muscle cells fromvoluntary disuse
Abnormal cellular atrophy Pathologic atrophy caused by forced disuse (broken bone cause muscle cell atrophy) or from disease like Alzheimers
Term describing cell growth by increase in organelles through production or by decreases in the degradation cycle of a cell. Not caused by increase in fluid. Hypertrophy
Normal cellular Hypertophy Physiologic hypertrophy caused by increased load on muscle cells (working out)
Abnormal cellular Hypertrophy Pathologic hypertrophy e.g. cellular damage to lungs increases the load on the heart causing Hypertrophy of the cardiac cells to obtain proper oxygen levels
Increase in the number of cells, either by increased cellular proliferation or decrease in cell death, can be caused by injury that is severe enough to cause cell death Hyperplasia
Normal Hyperplasia Physiologic Hyperplasia like development of the endometrium during mensturation (Hormonal hyperplasia) or regeneration of the liver (compensatory hyperplasia)
Normal adaptive mechanism that enables certain organs to regenerate. e.g. liver, but can NOT happen in the nerve, skeletal muscle, mycardial cells or lens cells of eyes Compensatory hyperplasia
Normal adaptive mechanism that occurs in cheifly estrogen dependent organs (uterus or breast) Hormonal Hyperplasia, e.g. build up of the endometrium (normal unless caused by estrogen and progesterone secretion imbalances)
Abnormal proliferation of normal cells in response to excessive hormonal stimulation or the effects of groth factors on target cells Pathologic Hyperplasia e.g. excessive build up of the endometrium from hormonal imbalances which cause hyperplastic endometrial cells that can transform into malignant cells "pre-cancerous"
Abnormal changes to the size, shape, & orgaization of mature cells. Not considered a true adaptive cellular response Dysplasia aka atypical hyperplasia e.g. \can be indicated in an abnormal PAP smear. Also can frequently occur in the epithelial tissue of the respiratory tract
Reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another. Metaplasia
Reversible replacement of the normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchials with squamous epithelial cells Bronchial Metaplasia - can be caused by smoking and is reversible if the perso stops smoking.
Occurs if when a cell is unable to maintain homeostasis, either i a normal or an adaptive steady state- in the face of injurous stimuli e.g. exposure to toxic chemicals, infections & hypoxia Cellular injury
Type of cellular injury from which cells can recover. Loss of ATP, cellular swelling, detachment of ribosomes, autophagy of lysosomes Reversible cellular injury
Type of cellular injury in which cells die. Point of no return structurally when severe vacuolization of the mitochondria occures & Ca++ moves into the cell Irreversible injury
Decreased level of oxygen delivery to tissue. most commonly caused by ischemia Hypoxia
An electrically uncharged atom or molecule that has an unpaired electron Free Radical, includes Hydroxy radicals,
Common type of cell death with severe swelling & breakdown of organelles Necrosis
Cellular celf-destruction for elimination of unwanted cell populations, a type of programmed cell death Apoptosis
Catalytic enzymes (proteins) that breakdown cell components by breaking down cytoskeleton causing release of apoptic bodies Casphases
Cellular self digestion that does not cause immune reaction because it remains in a membrane, causes production of autolysosomes, no casphases are produced Autophagy
Created by: cbryan3