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Dr Ray Endocrine

Human anatomy II Endocrine system Study guide

Hormone Type of intercellular signal, produced by cells of endocrine glands, enter circulatory system and affect distant cells
Difference between the signal the endocrine system sends to target tissue and the signal the nervous system sends Endocrine: amplitude modulated signals-amount of hormone determines strength of signal, onset within minutes Nervous: frequency-modulated signals-action of potientials produced by neurons determines strength of signal, onset within miliseconds
difference between autocrine and paracrine chemical signals Autocrines: chemical signals released by a cell and the substance affects that same cell, Paracrines: chemical signals released into intercellular fluid and affecting nearby cells
what type of molecules hormones are made of Chemical
what types of signals regulate the secretion of hormones The action of a substance other than a hormone on an endocrine gland, neural control of endocrine gland, control of secretory activity of one endocrine gland by hormone or neurohormone secreted by another endocrine gland
properties of hormones: water soluble and lipid soluble Water soluble bind to soluble hormones. do not go through membrane causes intracellular reaction, Lipid soluble pass through the lipid-rich plasma membrane around target cell. Binds to receptors in the cytoplasm of nucleus of the cell
how are steroid hormones synthesized synthesized and secreted into the bloodstream by the adrenal cortex and the gonads (lipids)
what specificity of binding means The purpose of binding to target tissue to elicit a response by the target cell
which type of hormones (water soluble vs lipid soluble) bind to which types of receptors. lipid soluble hormones Membrane-bound receptors, water-soluble hormones intracellular receptors
how hormones produce an intracellular response small lipid-soluble hormones diffuse through the plasma membrane and combine with intracellular receptors of intracellular receptors. The combination of hormones and intracellular receptors produces a response.
the different types of hormone receptors (By site, figure ID) Membrane-bound receptors, Intracellular receptors
what things an activated G protein can do Regulate intracellular enzyme activities, increase Na and water excretion by the kidney, increase the breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose into circulatory system, contract smooth muscle cells, or relax them if NO is used
how lipid soluble hormone produces a cell response. (cGMP) produced intracellularly in response to hormone attaching to receptor, cGMP combine with and activate specific enzymes in cytoplasm. Cell responds
the anatomy and location of the pituitary gland middle of the head behind the eye
what is the hypothalamohypophysial portal system releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones pass through the hypothalamohypophysial portal system to the anterior pituitary
the hormones and structure of the posterior pituitary extension of the nervous system via the infundibulum Secretes neurohormones use Osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, Antidiuretic hormone ADH also called vasopressin
what hormones are produced by the anterior pituitary GH or somatotropin, TSH, ACTH, MSH, Beta endorphins, Lipotropins, LH, FSH, prolactin
what the hypothalamus regulates secretions of anterior pituitary- body temp, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian cycles
the two forms of thyroid hormone (one is converted to the other in tissue) T3 (triioxothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine)
The properties of thyroid hormones transported in blood bound to T4 binding globulin, 33-40% of T4 converted to T3 in cells, bind with intracellular receptor molecules, increase rate of glucose fat and protein metabolism, normal growth of many tissue dependent
the properties of calcitonin and what it does Produced by parafollicular cells Secretion triggered by high Ca2+ concentration in blood; acts to decrease Ca2+ concentration Primary target tissue: bone. Decreases osteoclast activity, lengthens life span of osteoblasts.
the location of the parathyroid glands Parathyroid glands imbedded in thyroid gland. 2 glands on each side
the properties of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and what it does increases blood calcium, stimulatees osteoclasts, promotes calcium reabsorption, increases synthesis of vitamin D, regulation depends on calcium levels
what the adrenal medulla is and what hormones are produced formed from neural crest; sympathetic. Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine located in the center of the adrenal gland
the properties of epinephrine and norepinephrine Epinephrine and norepinephrine increase heart rate and force of contraction; cause blood vessels to constrict in skin, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and other viscera
the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex glucocorticoids and andregen
the Zona glomerulosa produces Aldosterone produced in greatest amounts.
the effects of cortisol on cells Increases fat and protein breakdown, increases glucose synthesis, decreases inflammatory response
where secreted and the effects of aldosterone mineralocorticoids, Zona glomerulosa, Increases rate of sodium reabsorption by kidneys increasing sodium blood levels
what hormones and the cells involved in hormone secretion from the pancreas Exocrine gland Produces pancreatic digestive juices, Endocrine gland consists of pancreatic islets
what insulin does Increases uptake of glucose and amino acids by cells
the causes of the two types of diabetes mellitus hyperglycemia, age
the properties of glucagon and what it does Target tissue is liver, Causes breakdown of glycogen and fats for energy
which hormone levels increase after a meal right after: increased insulin secretion, 1-2 hours after increased GH secretion, increased cortisol secretion, increased glucagon secretion
which hormones increase during exercise short term: increased eipnephrine, glucagon and inhibits insulin secretion. Prolonged: ACTH and GH release ACTH stimulates increased cortisol secretion
where Testosterone and Estrogen are produced by the testes and ovaries (Gonads)
which hormones are produced by the ovaries oestrogen, progesterone
the function of the pineal body to produce melatonin which inhibits GnRH secretion from hypothalamus, may help regulate sleep cycles by enhancing the tendency to sleep
the function of the Thymus produces T-Cells (T-lymphocytes) which are critical cells of the adaptive immune system
what substance (We mentioned in class at the end of the chapter) can promote inflammation, pain and vasodilation (not hormone, both autocrine and paracrine effects)
the general term for the mechanism of action of hormones
examples of lipid-soluble hormones cortisol, androgens, estrogens
water-soluble hormones bind with receptors on the surface of target cells,
Created by: murphyismyname



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