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lecture 9 pinckard

causes for edema increased hydrostatic pressure, decreased osmotic pressure, lymphatic obstruction, Na/H2O retention, inflammation
dependent edema dependens on gravity, thus occurs in ext most often; most associated with CHF
causes for anasarca shock causing hypotension due to increased vascular hydraulic pressure or protein loss by kidneys in glomerular dz
most common areas for brain herniation cingulate gyrus below falx cerebri, cerebellar tonsils through foramen magnum, uncus through tentorium
hyperemia vs congestion hyperemia - active accumulation of blood due to increased flow, causes erythema congestion - accumulation of blood due to impaired venous return, causes hypoxia/cyanosis
effects of left heart failure, gross and histologically gross - dark, heavy and firm lungs histologically - macrophages full of hemosiderin after having eaten extravasated RBCs from chronic passive congestion, fibrotic alveolar septae
effects of right heart failure, gross and histologically gross - nutmeg liver with hemorrhagic areas histologically - congested vessels/residual RBCs not draining, fibrotic parenchyma
organs with dual blood supply and/or loose parenchyma undergo this type of infarct red - blood within infarct examples - bronchi, lungs, venous infarcts microscopically - coagulative necrosis gross - soft, red
organs with only one blood supply and/or solid parenchyma undergo this type of infarct white - no blood in infarct examples - heart, liver, spleen microscopically - coagulative necrosis gross - soft, white
cause of septic infarcts bacterial vegetation from heart valve breaks away and lodges somewhere as embolus, infarct eventually becomes an abscess
time allows for ischemic/hypoxic tissue to develop collateral circulation and decrease risk of infarction
Created by: sirprakes