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Mental final mix


Client who desires to develop new leisure pursuits might benefit from intervention that focus on helping them identify? Pleasurable activities
According to Keilhofner "What one find important or meaningful" relates to what? Values
The ability to state one’s needs, thoughts, and feelings in an appropriate, direct and honest ways? Assertiveness
These aim substitute personal assets and environmental aids when cognitive skills are impaired? Compensatory strategies
What is a change that facilitates performance? Adaptation
The process of advancing step by step the course of gradual progress? Gradation
It is the awareness of the body and its effects on the environment? Self-awareness
Correctly list Allen's Cognitive test 1) Running Stitch 2) Whip Stitch 3) Single Cordovan Stitch
Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS) Assess several skills in the areas of personal care, safety, health, money management, transportation, use of phone, work, and leisure.
Barth Time Construction Color coded paper divided into 24 rows representing hours of the day
Bay area Functional Performance Evaluation A standard instrument that assess some of the general skill needed for independent functioning it begins with a brief interview
Allen's Cognitive Level test leather lacing
Clock Draw 4 criteria- closed circle, correct numbers, correct number locations, and correct recorded time.
COPM-Canadian Measures his/her occupational performance and importance of order
MMSE-Mini Mental 30 point patient must recall, follow three step commands and copy a design
The role checklist indicates which roles have been performed in pat, presenter will be performed in the future
Interest Checklist Client checks off whether their interest in activities is either casual, strong, or non-existent
Defines a set of behaviors that have some socially agreed upon function and for which there is an accepted code of norms Roles
Process by which person deal with stress, solves problems, and makes decisions Coping Skills
Chpt. 20 what is a particular challenge for persons with psychiatric disorders Leisure
Order of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1)physiological needs 2) safety needs 3) Love and belonging needs 4) esteem needs 5) self-actualization needs
To increase the complexity of cognitive tasks is an example of Upgrading the tasks
Talking out one's problems, preferably with a neutral or supportive listener is a stress management technique known as Verbalization’
auto-tapes are often used is a stress management techniqueSitting or lying with closed eyes and imaging a pleasant scene or cherished goal Visualization
Mental exercise that entails quiet sitting for a period of time to empty the mind Meditation
The part of the personality that regulates and responds to demands from the environment and from the other parts of the personality is the Ego
Because of admission and funding criteria generally a person cannot be admitting to an inpatient setting unless they Are a danger to themselves
Frameworks client factors are the variable that exist within the client that affect performance Body structure and Body function
Level 5 Earliest level that client presents enough safety awareness to live independently in a community
Level 1 This person is mostly unaware of what is going on carries out automatic
Level 3 This individual can use and recognize familiar tools
generally enjoys activities that are repetitive
Level 6 Client can complete tasks with only written direction
Level 2 Client is aware of their own movements and can name simple body parts
Level 4 Individual can copy demonstrated directions one step at a time
Object relations theory Sigmund Freud
A patient who developmental lag is at level of trust vs. mistrust would benefit from A long-term relationship with consistent person
Open ended questions, minimal response, reflection of feelings and paraphrasing Client Centered
OTP use activities as broad instruments of practice Although we must analyze activities carefully and always know what we are doing and why it is rarely useful to classify activities too rigidly
Factors in Learning and Using Skills- KNOWLEDGE Is acquired information (fact reality)
Skills are actions or behaviors that are learned
Attitudes are learned feelings, values, and beliefs
Similarly personal learning preferences and habits can affect new learning some individuals enact a lifelong pattern of helping or advising other people while avoiding having to demonstrate their own ability
The therapist or assistant must ask these questions for knowledge, skills, and attitudes how important is it for this person to be involved in this activity? What will it do for him? Does the patient known when, where why and with whom to use this activity? Does the patient know how to do it? Does the patient think it is important to do this
Many persons diagnosed with mental disorders have adequate basic ADL skills and do not require OT intervention for personal ADL occupations
Person with chronic conditions or severe psychotic disorders may appear indifferent to their personal hygiene bathing so infrequently and toileting inattentively so that they have a strong body odor combing and washing their hair rarely if at all. clothes mis-matched, bizarre, and out of season
Person with cognitive disabilities may be unable to manage money successfully and will be caught short before they have paid for basics like food, rent, and utilities
Transfer and generalization of learning are not reliable when skills are taught in clinical environment the person is not likely to use the skills in a home environment which is different
Personal hygiene and grooming may be taught on a one-on-one basis. this is appropriate for individuals with poor skill those who wish of need to learn some aspect that is private or not of general interest
Hygiene and grooming are taught in groups that may be restricted to clients of one sex or the other depending upon the specific skill context
Ideally skills should be taught in the consumers home using the tools and equipment to which he or she is accustomed
Hygiene showering bathing grooming and toileting contributes to developing habits
hygiene showering bathing grooming and toileting precautions bacterial, viral, parasitic can be transmitted via shared personal care products either each person should have his or her own items or disposable sample sizes should be used
selection and maintenance of clothing A large part of the impression one make on others depends on being dressed in clean neat well-fitting clothes that are appropriate for the season and the occasion
Those with severe mental disorders often lack even the basic skills necessary to present a good personal appearance
Dressing neatly and appropriately in a reasonably brief space of time requires skill and practice Clients may need help setting up combinations of clothes that work together. They may benefit from developing routines of laying clothes out the night before laundering and ironing on weekly basis
Cognitive disabilities compound problems with dressing Disorganization and clutter magnify the problems a person with a cognitive disability experiences
Nutrition and weight control Nutrition may be taught either as part of a cooking program or within the general area of self-care.
Methods of teaching nutrition flash cards worksheets and other commercially available educational aids therapist created educational aids such as posters collages and group discussion or make file recipes that are nutritious inexpensive and uncomplicated
Psychotropic medication for weight gain Olanapine
Some patients gain weight and stop taking the medication
weight control is body image
body image ones sense of one's own body and how it looks to other people
Medication management and health maintenance One of the least obvious but potentially most damaging problems faced by a person with a psychiatric disorder who is living in the community is mismanagement of medications
Many reasons for not taking medications client forgets to take lose track of doses run out of pills or deliberately stop taking
Reasons why people stop deliberately stop taking medications side effects of psychotropic medications can be uncomfortable
Those who do not take medication can be taught to use various environmental supports and memory aids such as compartmentalized pillboxes ,signs, lists, and timers
Clients feel empowered when they learn to monitor the signs and symptoms of their own illness and recognize and respond effectively to signals of impending relapse
Sexual activities needs an hygiene Both sexes knowledge of the basic mechanism of sexual reproduction the use of contraception methods for avoiding and recognizing sexually transmitted disease the use of condoms the dangers of unprotected sexual relationships and awareness of socially acce
Women have occasionally gotten pregnant because they did not know that sexual intercourse had anything to do with it therefore it is especially important for persons with psychiatric disorders learn the basic facts
Helping clients acquire knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases is critical
Individuals may need instruction and training in basic social standards such as exposing oneself masturbating in public or talking in public about masturbation or soliciting sexual acts from others
Exercise has many documented health benefits. It reduces the effects of stress and tension provides outlets for frustration anxiety and aggression speeds up metabolism burns calories reduces appetite improve cardio and increase strength endurance flexibility
Communication devices telephones require a combination of communication skill process skills and manual skills actual practice is essential
Mobility and transportation Without training some clients may be reluctant to venture beyond one- or two blocks radius of their homes.
Transportation skill may focus on either public or private transportation or a combination of the two
Money management not unusual for someone with a chronic mental disorder to run out of money long before the next disability check is due to arrive. Without money the person may become desperate perhaps so anxious as to become psychotic and need to be hospitalized
Formal education participation in academic nonacademic extracurricular and vocational programs
educational exploration such as investigation and selection of ways to learn about skill and topics of interest
informal personal education participation classes and programs that provide growth or training in areas of interest
Work is a major life role for the average nondisabled adultit consumes at least half of most people's waking hours and provides a sense of self-worth identity and a place in the social structureit consumes at least half of most people's waking hours and provid
American with disability act of 1990 employers are required to provide reasonable accommodations to disabled employees. however the person must be able to perform the essential functions of the job given the accommodations
Accommodations should not undue expense or hardship to the employer, no direct threat of substantial harm to the person or to others from performing the job with the accommodations
Work available treatment items employment interests and pursuits, employment seeking and acquisition, job performance, retirement preparation and adjustment, volunteer exploration volunteer participation
Work potential Evaluation-attendance punctually and productivity
work attitudes behaviors such as accepting responsibility for oneself accepting direction from a supervisor and relating to peers
cognitive factors memory organization and sequencing of a task
physical factors tolerance for standing stamina and eye hand coordination
Vocational Evaluation and training clients may be referred for evaluation of their potential for different kinds of work. whose basic task skills and work behavior s are adequate but who have no marketable or usable job skills may also enter vocational evaluation directly after pre-vocatio
Employment seeking and acquiring OTFP- employment seeking acquisition as identifying job opportunities completing and submitting appropriate application materials preparing for interviews and following up afterward discussing job benefits and finalizing negotiations
Job performance OTPF including work habits for example attendance punctuality appropriate relationships with coworkers and supervisors completion of assigned work and compliance with the norms of the work setting
Task groups therapist generally use the term task group means a highly structured group in which very low functioning clients learn basic task skills
basic task taught in task group Attend to tasks long enough to complete it, use tools and materials safely and without waste, work at a consistent and productive rate, recognize errors and problems, work neatly and with attention to detail
work group are designed to simulate a work environment such groups actually produce a product or provide a service
Production line one popular format is the production line in which a product is manufactured by dividing the task into steps that are performed by different members
Clerical groups focus on office skills
A newspaper journal group is a variation on the clerical group, but it requires more initiative creativity and decision making from its members the groups major activity is to write, edit, type, print, and distribute
service concessions for treatment center. A food service or coffee shop work group provides food and beverages usually for only a few hrs. a day
The current best practice acknowledge by professionals including OTP is supported employment SE which has a strong research evidence of effectiveness with persons with serious mental illness
worker cooperatives are owned by workers who share in the profits and decide jointly how to spend or invest what they have earned
Volunteer positions-advantages can set their own schedules, are always appreciated, have more flexibility to respond to the changing symptoms of their psychiatric disability
Role maintenance clients who are employed may find extended hospitalization very disruptive to their work habits and skills they can be helped to maintain their role responsibilities and skills by participating in a maintenance
transition to retirement-OTP assist in the following ways facilitating expression of the meaning of work and of the feelings of loss, bringing closure to the work experience, providing links to enable part--time consultative or volunteer work to continue the experience of productivity
Refusing to believe something that causes anxiety Denial
Believing that an unacceptable feeling of one’s own belongs to someone else Projection
Making excuses for unacceptable behavior or feelings Rationalization
Conflicts turn into real physical symptoms Conversion
Functioning at a more primitive developmental level than previouslygoing back to an immature pattern of behavior Regression
Trying to reverse the effects of what one has done by doing the opposite Undoing
Overestimating someone or valuing him/her more than the real personality and person seem to merit Idealization
Adopting the habits or characteristics of another person Identification
Unacceptable wishes channeled into socially acceptable activities Sublimation
A realistic goal or object substituted for one that cannot be achieved Substitution
Efforts to make up for personal deficits this can also be a conscious effort. Compensation
A group of heterogeneous, typically recurrent illness including unipolar (depressive) and bipolar (manic depressive) disorders that are characterized by persuasive mood disturbances Mood disorders
a mood disorder marked by loss of interest or pleasure in living Major depressive disorder
A mood disorder marked by alternation between a depressed mood and heightened mood Bipolar (manic depressive) disorder
Patterns of abnormal behavior in the consumption and retention of food eating disorders
A group of mental conditions that manifest with feelings of discomfort or dread or apprehension accompanied by an autonomic response caused by anticipation of a danger that may be nonspecific or unknown to the individual anxiety disorder
1. The note should be organized in a logical fashion 2. The note must indicate why the pt. needs OT 3. The content of the note must reveal what benefit the pt. received as a result of OT 4. The note must focus on the pt. goals and be functional 5. The not Essential content for occupational therapy notes
Dysfunction in or loss of cognitive functions so that the acquisition, retention, and use of knowledge is impaired or lost (usually as a result of dementia or delirium) Cognitive disorders
Partial or total inability to recall past experiences too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness Amnestic Disorders
Acute, reversible, Confusional state characterized by fluctuating disturbances in cognition, mood, attention, arousal, and self-awareness Delirium
Deterioration of intellectual function and other cognitive skills severe enough to interfere with the ability to perform daily life activities may be progressive, static, or remitting Dementia
Difficulty with short-term and recent memory intermittent/consistent confusion about time and place concrete thinking difficulty with problem solving and new learning declining ability to perform on the job or carry out IADLs Early/Forgetful Phase (mind)
Increasing memory deficits consistent confusion about time, place, and person poor concentration with inability to make sense of incoming stimuli requires help of care giver for safety/financial management decline in BADLs and social interaction Confusional Phase (moderate)
loss of awareness of familiar people, surroundings, and seasonal changes decline in carrying out familiar repetitive actions, use of vocabulary, and voluntary movement for ambulation, eating, toileting, etc. Dementia Phase (severe)
Goals: to foster normal development in sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychological skills Infancy/Early childhood
Interventions: Sensory motor or sensory integrative tx. approaches, Psychoanalytic methods, behavior oriented, develop self-care skills, building a trusting relationship and modify the environment to enable success Infancy/Early childhood
Goals: Increase trust/social relatedness, develop cooperation, improve self-esteem and self-awareness enhance self-control, develop body awareness and sensorimotor skills, improve coordination, perceptual skills, and cognitive abilities. Later Childhood
Intervention: Sensory integrative, behavioral, psychoanalytic, and environmental approaches, progressive relaxation and stress management techniques, computer games Later Childhood
Goals: Develop self-esteem and self-identity skills, develop occupational choice, develop sensorimotor skills, especially body image, acquire prevocational and leisure behaviors, acquire a sense of internal control and direction Adolescence
Intervention: daily living skills training, incorporate current fashions, and technology into treatment activities, sex education and birth control Adolescence
Goals: develop self-awareness and self-responsibility, identify personal goals Early Adulthood
Interventions: vocational assessment and work adjustment, time management and leisure planning, assessment and modification of habits and beliefs related to eating/food education nutrition and cooking, sensorimotor and expressive activities Early Adulthood
Goals: improving and maintaining daily living schools, providing opportunities for productive work in a sheltered environment, identifying and resolving issues Middle Adulthood
Interventions: crisis interventions, conflict resolutions, environmental adaptions and supports, reality orientation, sensory stimulation, physical activities, memory training Middle Adulthood
Goals: maintain or achieve a feeling of competence or self-reliance, prevent further deterioration in functioning, develop hobbies and social involvement Late Adulthood
Interventions: environmental adaptions, leisure counseling, reality orientation, re-motivation or reminiscence techniques, life review activities, crafts, games, puzzles, simple group and self-care activities, sensory stimulation, physical activities Late Adulthood
The part of the personality that regulates and responds to demands from the environment and from other parts of the personality? Ego
Because of admissions and fun ding criteria generally a person can't be admitted into an inpatient setting unless they? Are a danger to themselves
Framework client factor are the variables that exist within the client that affect performance. body functions and structures
Earliest level that client presents enough safety awareness to live (I) in the community? level 5
This person is mostly unaware of what’s going on, carries out automatic? level 1
This person can use or recognize familiar tools, generally enjoys activities that are repetitive? level 3
Client can complete tasks with only written directions? level 6
Client is aware of their own movements and can name simple body parts? level 2
Individual can copy demonstrated directions one step at a time? level 4
Object relations theory? Sigmond Freud
A pt. whose developmental lag is at level of trust vs. mistrust would benefit from? A long term relationship with a consistent person
Open-ended questions, minimal response, reflection of feelings, and paraphrasing represent the treatment methods of which theoretical approach? Client-centered
Adjusting to hormonal and physical changes? Adolescence
Adjusting to significant life stressors, retirement, deaths of people close to them? Later adulthood
Learning to trust? infancy/early childhood
learning to delay gratification? later childhood
Contributing to the future through building career, family or both? Early adulthood
Re-evaluating one’s life, begin to consider retirement? Middle adulthood
Coordination improves, and cognitive skills become more complex? later childhood
Through play, they begin to build the foundation for future roles? infancy/early childhood
Begin to examine career choices? Adolescence
Understanding and appreciating the accomplishments of life? later adulthood
New roles, supervisor or organizational leader? Middle adulthood
Focus is on work limited time for recreation? early adulthood
Industry vs. inferiority 4
Identity vs. Role confusion 5
Ego identity vs. Despair 8
trust vs. mistrust 1
generativity vs. stagnation 7
autonomy vs. shame and doubt 2
Initiative and imagination vs. guilt 3
Intimacy vs. resolution 6
Cognitive disabilities Allen
Psychiatric rehabilitation Anthony and Farkus
MOHO Kielhofner
Sensory Integration King
Development of Adaptive Skills Mosey
Role Acquisition Mosey
Social skills training Mosey
Psychoeducation Lillie/Armstrong
Focuses on helping a person master occupation supporting skills in sensory integration, cognition, dyadic interaction, and sexual identity in specific sequential order? Mosey/Development of Adaptive Skills
Focus on improving balance, posture, and range of motion? King/Sensory Integration
focuses on 4 key skills self-expressive, other enhancing, assertive skills and communication skills? Mosey/ Social skills training
Teaching daily life roles Mosey/Role Acquisition
Human occupation occurs in a dynamic relationship with the environment? Kielhofner/MOHO
Six levels of cognitive functioning? Allen/Cognitive Functioning
Uses leather lacing as an assessment of cognitive functioning? Allen/Cognitive
Focuses on the activity rather than environment? King/Sensory Integration
information found on Axis III of a psychiatric diagnosis would most likely include? CVA
information found on Axis IV of a psychiatric diagnosis would most likely include? Economic Problems
information found on Axis II of a psychiatric diagnosis would most likely include? Borderline personality disorder
information found on Axis V of a psychiatric diagnosis would most likely include? GAF Score
Clients who desire to develop new leisure pursuits, might benefit from intervention that focuses on helping them identify? pleasurable activities
According to Kielhofner "what one finds important or meaningful" relates to? Values
The ability to state one's needs, thoughts, and feelings in an appropriate, direct and honest way? Assertiveness
These aim to substitute personal assets and environmental aids when cognitive skills are impaired? compensatory strategies
What is a change that facilitates performance? Adaption
"The process of advancing step by step the course of gradual progress? Gradation
It's the awareness of the body and its effects on the environment? self-awareness
Correctly list the stitches used in the Allen's cognitive levels? 1. running stitch 2. whip stitch 3. single cordovan stitch
Assesses several skills in the areas of personal care safety and health, money management, transportation, use of phone, and work/leisure? KELs
Color-coded paper divided into 24 rows representing hours of the day? Barth Time Construction
A standardized instrument that assesses some of the general skills needed for (I) functioning begins with a brief interview? Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation
Uses the client's performance of progressively more difficult leather-lacing stitches? Allen's cognitive
Scores a pt. based upon four criteria: closed circle, correct numbers, correct number location, and correct time? clock draw
Measures the client's own perceptions about his/her occupational performance and importance to them? Canadian Occupational Performance Measure
30 point examination that assesses pt's. cognitive level using the ability to recall named items, follow three step commands, and copy and design? MMSE (mini mental)
Asks client to indicate which roles have been performed in the past, present, or will be performed in the future, and rate the value of the role? The roll checklist
Client is asked to check off whether their interest in activities is either casual, strong, or nonexistent interest checklist
defined as a set of behaviors that have some socially agreed upon function and for which there is an accepted code of norms? Roles
The process by which a person deals with stress, solves problems, and makes decisions? coping skills
From chapter 20 in your txt what is a particular challenge for persons with psychiatric disorders? Leisure
Maslow's hierarchy in order of needs? 1. physiological, 2. safety 3. needs,4. esteem needs 5. Self-actualization
Increasing the complexity of a cognitive task is an example of? upgrading the task
Talking out one's problems, preferably with a neutral/supportive listener is a stress management technique used as? Verbalization
sitting or lying with closed eyes and imaging a pleasant scene or cherished goal, audio tapes are tapes are often used as stress management techniques known as? Visualization
Mental exercises that entail quiet sitting for a period of time to empty the minds activity is a stress management technique known as? Meditation
Created by: mejasha
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