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Phys Sport Fitness

Ch 5 Energy Transfer

metabolism sum of the processes of all reactions of the body:
energy provides power for a mechanical process synthesizes: anabolism e.g. testosterone, and breaksdown: catabolism
where does energy production start? eating macro/micronutrients
macronutrients broken down into a useful form of energy; carbs (CHO), protein, fat=substrates
CH0 Protein fig 5.12 fat -glucose (turns into before everything) -not preferable for of energy, but AA helps with building of cells -FFA storage of energy for later in muscle tissue regions
how is carbs broken down and stored? circulating glucose
what is glucose stored as and where? glycogen in liver
What is not a primary form of energy? protein (AA amino acid)
what is a good recovery form? protein and CHO or choc milk fig 5.4
How long before feeding while exercising and deplete glucose and glycogen storage 45min-1hr
ATP adinosiae tryphosphate fig 5.4 Usable form of energy and cause for fatique when there is a depletion? -also needed for improvement and metabolism in active transport.
ATP breaks down into what ADP+Pi>AMP
ADP adinosiae phosphate + Pi fig 5.4
one way body becomes fatigued depletion of ATP -body stores small amount -storage is used within seconds -storage replenishes -cryotin phosphate CP and gives up P and ATP -e.g. person crossing line 1st is fatigued last and has more ATP
why does energy release occur slowly in small amounts during comples, enzymatically controlled reactions? to enable more efficient energy transfer and conservation
where does 40% of potential energy in food nutrients transfer? th high energy compound ATP
what does the splitting o ATP's terminal phosphate bond liberate? free energy to poewr all biologic work
what does ATP represent? cell's energy currency, altho it's limited quantity amounts to only about 3.5oz
what forms ATP PCr and ADP aka "high-energy phosphates"
PCr nonaerobic, high-energy reservoir that replenishes ATP rapidly
what represents energy transfer as energy-rich phosphat ocnds? phosphorylation
ADP and Cr continually recycle into ___ and ___ ATP and PCr
where does cellular oxidation occr? innerlining of nitochondrial membranes
what's involved in cellular oxidation? transferring electrons from NADH and FADH2 to molecular o2. -this releases and transfers chemical energy to combine ATP from ADP plus a phosphate ion
during _____, o2 ( the final electron acceptor in respiratory chain) combines w/H to form water aerobic ATP resynthesis
ATP ADP+P>Phosphagen system -CP -all cellular functions of body
Glycolitic system breakdown of glucose and glycogen
glucose clycolysis
glycogen glycogendysis
oxidative phosphonylation takes places in Oxidative cells (mitochondria) -aerobic
Physiologically can you give 100% in a marathon or 100 meter dash? no
fig 5.12 athletes need to keep glucose and glycogen in system at all times during competition -needs to be replenished after depleted from 8 hr fasting
Deaminated amino acid proteins
glycolysis process 5.13 -stored in muscle cell outside of mitochondria -atp>adp -has different rates based on your activity -see formation of water and H ions
how do you measure H ions? pH or solutions acidity or basic -as pH goes down, you become acidic
what happens when Pyruvate turns into lactate? becomes a buffer and gives off a H
does lactate cause fatigue or soreness? no
DOMS delayed onset of muscle soreness
*what is role of pyruvate? goes into mitochondria and converted into enzyme and depends on glycolysis
what do enzymes do? speed up reactions -made of protein
Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle -creb or citric acid cycle -3 parts
3 parts of oxidation cycle creb cycle (H ions)>from glycolysis -beta oxidation -beta transfer system
Electron Transport System ETS transports H ions to cascade and O2 accepts last on with ATP forming
who have fast twitch fibers glycolitic fiber -anaerobic, dnt like aerobic work, running miles -produce a lot of lactate
where does slow twitch fiber come from? Oxidative Phosphonylation -main source of energy is fat
when do you fatigue? when run out of glucose and glycoge, not that you don't have enough fat
why do we produce lactate lactate shuttle that dsnt cause fatigue -some goes into blood and some in Mitochondria where turns into pyruvate>acidocolate> drives -goes to heart, slow twitch fiber, and liver
heart is lactate disposal site
what happens to lactate in liver? turns into glucose, then goes back to tissue that needs it
what is lactate fuel converted back to pyruvate -high energy fuel
high max vo2 means what very good in endurance sports -heart, vascular system, lungs, muscular system -musc sys high in mitochondria and o2 utilization -p 192
how many muscle fibers to we have 9, three predominant Type 1, Type 2X
Type 1 fiber slow twitch -doesn't put out power quickly -high in Mitochondria -Oxidative Phosphorlation for aerobic animal -dsnt hypertrophy very well -ectomorph-thin in nature
Type 2X -fast twitch -puts out power quickly -high in Glycclytic fiber-Glycolysis -lactate production -hypertrophy -mesomorphic body type-muscular
max VO2 for the public -function -vo2 max is low, so daily function is lower -cardiovascular, instage rino, pulmonary disease -lose kidney function
arithropoeton -kidneys make red blood cells that carry your o2 thru body -let your lifestyle determine your fitness, not your fitness define your lifestyle
we are never in one ATP system or the other mix of phosphogen, glycolytic and oxidative system
relationship b/w intensity and duration determines your excess metabolic rate and still in kilocalorie burning
bioenergetics is key in: athletic training and performance
why do you breath hard or are still sweating after you work out? -O2 debt -Excess Post-exercise O2 Consumption EPOC -energy expenditure directly related to -body temp up, disrupt cells, recover, get stronger, raises metabolic rate; O2 debt
how do we lose weight? what do we tell people? -cardio, aerobic b/c burns fat -we will tap into our energy stores so if they are fast twitch they can do Type 2 exercise -EPOC-
ergomotry science of measurement of work and power
work product of an applied force exerted over a known destance against gravity. or in other word; force x distance=work
power application of force relative to time. or in other words: work/time or (force x distance)/time
ergometer a device used to measure work (eg treadmill, cycle, rower)
calorimetry measurement of body metabolism from heat release from body. whem measured via gas analysis. it is known as indirect calorimetry
we cant sustain life with high levels of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide asthma, COPD
RER, RQ used synonomously; produces VCO2/VO2; measures carb and fat
high intensity, burn- CHO-1.0=100% CHO, 0% fat
non-metabolic co2 comes from buffering of H ions
economy oxygen consumption required to perform a given task; measure of fitness
efficiency when applied to exercise, ratio (expressed as percentage) b/w machanical energy produced during exercise to energy cost of exercise, energy generation/energy metabolism -how well you use energy for any given task -eg 2 0r 3 mi in cc when you tighten up
is it better to walk a mile or run it? substrate used is not much different, but amount of substrate was more in running
kcal in is less then kcal out= losing weight
p. 152 -aerobic o2 is low to moderate intensity exercise -where ATP is made 1)oxidative phosphorylation -metabolism
anaerobic -no o2, higher intensity exercise -metabolism 1)ATP<>ADP+Pi (muscular contraction)-PCr/CP-cryatine phosphate -Phosphogen system immediately replenishes 2)Glycolysis-glucose-ATP broken dwn into ADP=glycogenalysis -has diff rates, totally dep on need o
mitochondria powerhouse, provides energy for body -atp producer -o2-aerobic
what produces atp outside the mitochondria and what is this ATP process? anaerobic exercise -pyruvate fig 5.13
How do you hit the wall or bonk? no atp, power house shut down
cryatine phosphate CP loading facilitates high intensisty training (resistance)
system where there is only enough energy for few secs of max work ATP<>ADP or Phosphagen -anaerobic w/o o2
Glycolytic System anaerobic -glucose>breaksdown into glycolysis -glycogen> GLYCOGENOLYSIS
Oxidative Phosphonylation -aerobic -mitochondria
order of energy systems 1. ATP<>ADP 2. Glycolytic system 3. oxidative phosphonylation
? fig 5.13 glucose breaks down at diff rates depending on? -whether produces pyruvate-can produce lactate -form of H2O -see hydrogen ions -Pyruvate>lactate=buffer>lactic acid (gives H ions) -beta oxidation -ATP formed -
pH >acidic>fatigue -long, arhymic inverse measure of hydrogen ions
hydrogen ions-measured by___ -faster process= pH; more H ions
system where there is only enough energy for few secs of max work ATP<>ADP or Phosphagen -anaerobic w/o o2
Glycolytic System anaerobic -glucose>breaksdown into glycolysis -glycogen> GLYCOGENOLYSIS
Oxidative Phosphonylation -aerobic -mitochondria
order of energy systems 1. ATP<>ADP 2. Glycolytic system 3. oxidative phosphonylation
? fig 5.13 glucose breaks down at diff rates depending on? -whether produces pyruvate-can produce lactate -form of H2O -see hydrogen ions -Pyruvate>lactate=buffer>lactic acid (gives H ions) -beta oxidation -ATP formed -
pH >acidic>fatigue -long, arhymic inverse measure of hydrogen ions
hydrogen ions-measured by___ -faster process= pH; more H ions
-Pyruvate>lactate=buffer>lactic acid (gives H ions) --very import, goes into mito converted to enzyme (acetyl CoA)- speed up reaction and incr protein -enters tricarboxylic acid cyle (TCA) citric acit cycle (Kreb cycle)
Beta Oxidation where fat is burned/oxidzed
most ATP formed ETS-Electron transport system LH>O2>ATP
fast twitch fibers= glycolitic fiber-anaerobic
slow twitch fibers= oxidative phosphonylation -fat=primary source of substrate -ultimate oxidative fiber=heart
lactate fig 5.16 high energy fuel -shuttle -good indicator muscle intensity -goes into blood and mitochondria-
what does lactate do when in blood? -transported high in the mito --lactate disposal is in heart --slow twitchd fibers in skeletal muscles --liver converts it to glucose>Cori cycle>back to tissue that needs it; High energy fuel
when lactate goes into mitochondria it's converted to pyruvate>kreb cycle<ETS
fat breakdown into FFA -Lipolysis -subcutaneous fat -catacolamines
lipolysis oxidative phosphorylation-needs to reach mitochondria -aerobic
FFA circulates down into tissue that is working -goes into process of B Oxidation (need O2 for process to work) -cardio increases O2 (mitochondria) and fat burning
amino acid pool protein to glucose in liver-Gluconeogenesis -alomine-during depletion of starvation (breaking lean tissue)
? cori cycle gluconeogenesis -formation of glucose from noncarb source -protein -glucose alomine cycle
glycogen synthesis formation and 1st line of defense fromation of glycogen (how to restore after workout) -cori cycle-lactate<liver<muscle<stored glycogen
glycogen synthesis (enzyme) and feeds when? -any glucose it converts to glycogen -enzyme is high-time frome of high= 2 hrs eg sugar drink; combination protein and carbs-ensure, choc milk, frozen yogurt
lactate used in: liver>glucose>cori cycle -heart-mitochondria -slow twitch fibers-mitochondria
p188 fig 6.2 k
vo2 and how measured volume of o2 consumed in a min-related to amount of work done -ventilation of o2 -absolute-liters/min -relative (real life)-milliliters/kilogram of body weight/min
avg max vo2 38-42 mL/kg body weight/min -direct link to abilities as endurance athlete
oxygen deficit -fig 6.2, 6.4 -point from onset of exercise to steady rate -incr to steady rate -body lagging behind workload -reduce lag w/warm up
what is responsible for max vo2? p. 192-3 -heart, vasculaar, lungs, muscular system, mitochondria, o2 utilization, high max vo2 -cardiovascular, pulmonary, meromuscular
kidneys function make red blood cells-carry o2 fig 6.6
? fig 6.6 -never in 1atp system or other; mix of phosphogen, glycolytic, and oxidative system, constantly flowing in and out based on energy of mvnt
bioenergetics key factor in training and performance
EPOC fig 6.7 -o2 debt (older term) -excess post-exercise o2 consumption -beyond resting rate; addtional caloric burner after exercise
metabolism energy expenditure related to o2 consumption=increase
ch 7 ergometry and calorimetry
work applied force exerted over known distance against gravity -force x distance
power force relative to time -work/time=(force x distance)/time
calorimetry measurement of body metabolism from heat release from body. -when measured via gas analysis, known as indirect calorimetry
open sparometer what did in lab -o2=21% -co2=.03%
RER respiratory exchange ratio
RQ Respiratory quotient -vco2/vo2-cant produce more co2 then o2 --fats and carbs
*above 1 non metabolic co2 comes from? buffering of H and pH -higher H-lower #=acidic=fatigue
what is a great measure of fitness and its definition? econome-pertaining to o2 consuption required to perform given task
?efficiency when applied to exercise is the ratio % b/2 mechanical energy produced during exercise to energy ___ of exercise=chngd energy -generation/change of energy metabolism, how well we use energy
RQ incr fat metab-low intensity-aerobic work -vco2 decr/vo2 incr=cho -walking vs running-RQ same; caloric count diff --more amount of fat burned=> Kcal
Created by: Jamie D



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