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mental health quiz 4


Compensatory strategies Aim to substitute personal assets and environmental aids when cognitive skills are impaired.
Remedial training seeks to enhance underlying abilities and support the reintegration of cognitive functions
Reality Orientation is an educational technique designed to reinforce confused and disoriented individuals sense of personal identity and help them stay aware of time and place who they are with and what they are doing.
Re-motivation is a group discussion technique for helping depressed and confused persons organize and verbalize their thoughts and feelings
Re-motivation topics usually draw on LTM which may remain intact and quite sharp despite deterioration of STM and orientation to the present
Computer software has been used for cognitive rehabilitation of persons with psychiatric disabilities. This is an attractive activity for many clients for several reasons.
computer software reasons 1)modern device easily mastered 2)computer games provide a success experience 3) computer activity give feedback about performance 4) computer activities look and feel educational rather than medical or therapeutic
Cognitive Factors and Performance Contexts When working to compensate for or to remediate cognitive impairments the OTP must consider the performance context
Cogn. Factors and performance context If the goal is for the client to be able to sequence getting dressed or making a meal the training should involve doing those activities within the environment in which the client will be expected to perform them
Sensory and Motor Impairments and Psychiatric Disorders The ability to perceive and respond to sensory stimulation underlies almost all daily life activity. Depressed individuals tend to move or respond slowly those in manic episodes often move quickly and respond rapidly and impulsively.
Sensory an Motor Impairments and Psychiatric D/O OTP use sensorimotor activities to improve clients perception of and response to sensory stimuli and to stimulate movement
Whose job is it to select activities the OT or the OTA? Both are in collaboration with the client. SELECTION OF ACTIVITIES
To judge whether an activity will meet goals and be acceptable to the client one must first analyze the activity. ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITIES OTP must tear the activity apart examining each piece against a vast number of concepts and theories drawn from professional and technical education and experience.
Adaptation of activity Adaptation is a change that facilitates performance.
Gradation of activity Gradation is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as the process of advancing step-by-step the course of gradual progress.
Attention Span The amount by which the period increases and the rate at which the program progresses are based on the client's ability to tolerate increased demands. Decision Making
Problem Solving As with decision making it is important to work with problems that clients face in their lives (what to do when a family member asks for money or how to get into one's apartment when the keys are locked inside)
Self-Concept and Self-Awareness Self-awareness is a skill that has many developmental layers. At its most basic, it is the awareness of the body and it effects on the environment.
Social Conduct and Interpersonal Skills For the client to develop in this area, the therapist provides activities that require interaction with other people and that include opportunities to discuss and analyze what happens between them.
Independence and Self-Direction Programs to help clients develop a greater sense of independence and self-direction require activities that can be graded in terms of how much the client must rely on the OT practitioner or other people for help.
Confusion Person responds to simple questions with unrelated remarks
Disorientation Person says the year is 1983
Inability to recognize objects or persons Man cannot recognize his wife
Reduced attention or inattention Grade school student attends to task for only 5 minutes during math test.
Difficulty initiating an activity Homemaker does not start dinner in time for evening meal
Difficulty ending an activity Person with brain injury brushes teeth for 15 minutes
Deficits in STM or LTM Client cannot remember where wallet is (STM) cannot remember wedding date (LTM)
Inability to sequence logically Client dons shoes before socks
Difficulty recognizing categories or placing objects in categories When putting away groceries, client puts items into cabinets and refrigerator, not differentiating those that need refrigeration
Difficulty organizing information or recognizing its significance Client puts all mail in a drawer mixing advertisements with official notices, bills, and important correspondence
Problems understanding how objects relate in space When asked to make a sandwich client puts two pieces of bread on top of the piece of cheese
Difficulty solving problems Client tries to move folding shopping cart through narrow doorway but fails to fold it and turn it sideways and so gives up
Difficulty learning new information or skills Client needs cuing and supervision to travel to local pharmacy
Difficulty generalizing or transferring skill or knowledge from one situation to another similar one Client can use a specific bus and route but does not generalize this to other buses and routes
Tactile awareness and processing is the perception and interpretation of sensation through the skin. Ex. rubbing or being rubbed with textured cloths, lotions
Olfactory(smell) and gustatory(taste) Awareness exercises can also be included.
postural control is the ability to maintain balance and control of the body while moving. Because of its CNS effects, music should be used cautiously.
Music with a clear steady beat and keep movements in time with the rhythm
Coordination, ROM, Endurance, and Strength To obtain the greatest benefit form sensorimotor activities the group leader should create an atmosphere of fun, pleasure, and joy in movement. If the participants pay too much attention to what they are doing their movements will lose spontaneity
Sensorimotor Treatment Can overstimulated some clients, and the OTA is cautioned to be alert to client’s condition and response. Signs such as nausea dizziness, sweating, flushing, or blanching, fatigue, indicates that the person has had too much stimulate
Tactile stress balls, Kush balls, Wikki Stix, books and magazines, art and crafts supplies, putty clay, rubbing stones, t-foam cubes, therapy brushes, beanbags, musical instruments, chalkboards and chalk, massage tools, vibrating gadgets, weighted lap pads
Visual TV/DVD/VCR, wall or ceiling projectors, lighted ceiling effects, wall tapestry, books and magazines, laminated scenic pictures, posters, wall mural, color and texture of wall paints and coverings, mobiles, wind chimes
Auditory Headphones, portable music player, stereo, assorted music selections, musical instruments, singing bowl, karaoke machine, videos, sound machines, rain stick
Olfactory Scented candles, scented lotions and powders, linen sprays, aromatic beads, aromatherapy diffuser, cut flowers cinnamon sticks, eucalyptus leaves, lavender buds, potpourri
Gustatory Individually wrapped hot balls, sour candies, crunchy and chewy foods, sugar-free gum, strong mints
Body awareness, movement and balance Weighted blankets, blanket wraps, weighted lap pad, weighted stuff toys, ankle weights, therapeutic brushing, vibration, self-massage, rocking chair, beanbag chair, yoga, therapy balls, medicine balls, a rock climbing wall, vibrating seated equipment
Other Air purifier, locked cabinet, window treatment, natural lighting, full-spectrum lighting, book shelf, texturized wall covering, chalkboard paint, electrical outlets, and covers for when not in use
Values Kielhofner (21) defines values as what one finds important and meaningful
Interests what one finds enjoyable or satisfying to do
Self-concept the composite of ideas, feelings, and attitudes that a person has about his or her own identity worth, capabilities, and limitations
Pattern Role Performance as a set of behaviors that have some socially agreed upon function and for which there is and accepted code of norms
Social Conduct: communication and interaction skills Frequently the client "knows" the desired behavior but misreads environmental cues and thus fails to choose the effective behavior for achieving the desired result
Assertiveness is the ability to state one's needs thoughts, and feelings in an appropriate, direct and honest way
Self-expression is having, demonstrating, or revealing ones thoughts, feeling, and needs. Coping skills
Stress Management Yoga, tai chi require study practitioners who wish to use these with clients should first obtain certification as a practitioner and teacher of the discipline
Stress management precautions some yoga asanas are contraindicated for specific medical problems. Clients should be advised to find a certified teacher and to share pertinent health information
Verbalization Talking out one's problems, preferably with a neutral or supportive listener Humor
Regular and sufficient sleep sleep on a regular schedule to prepare the body to cope with stress
Proper nutrition Conscious consumption of foods that are nutritious and not harmful
Aerobic activity Exercise or sports activity that requires an aerobic level of exertion, releasing physical tension and increasing level of endorphins
Meditation Mental exercise that entails quiet sitting or a period to empty the mind or just quietly observe the minds activity
Progressive relaxation Method of systematically testing and releasing muscles in successive body parts to promote relaxation generally done with eyes closed
visualization or guided imagery Sitting or lying with closed eyes and imaging a pleasant scene or cherished goal; audiotaped after used
Yoga Physical and spiritual discipline that promotes relaxation through stretching, physical postures, awareness and control of breathing
Tai Chi Physical and spiritual discipline that promotes relaxation through guided movements and quiet breathing
Biofeedback Use of a machine to feed back to the person information about some measure of physiological stress
Managing grief and loss the typical dysfunctional pattern of responding to grief s to deny it or stuff it
Self-control Means that one can shape or contain emotions and thought and exercise control over one's actions
Anger management Of all self-control issues anger has received the most attention, perhaps because it can be so disturbing to others
Anger management recognizing that one is essential to success in work and social situations
Created by: mejasha
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