Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

CCIE R&S - Multicast

CCIE R&S - Written - Multicast

QuestionAnswer
What class and IPv4 range is reserved for multicast? Class D, 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
What is the multicast Local Link Range reserved for? Reserved for routing protocols and other maintenance functions
What is the IPv4 multicast Local Link Range? 224.0.0.0 - 224.0.0.255 (Local Network Control Block)
What is the ipv4 multicast Internet Application Range? Range is 224.0.1.0 - 224.0.1.255 (Internetwork Control Block)
What is GLOP used for? It is used for sourcing multicast content on the internet
How is GLOP assigned? 233.AS_Value.Local_Assignment
What is the range of IPv4 multicast addresses that are administratively scoped for organizations? 239.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
What are the top 256 addresses in each Admin Scope reserved for? Scope Relative Address, such as 239.255.255.249 (reserved for DHCPv4)
What is the disadvantage of IGMP Version 1 Hosts have no way of notifying routers when they don't want the multicast stream
What major improvement was made with IGMP Version 2? Hosts now have the ability to send a 'Leave Group' message
What is the benefit to IGMP Version 3 It adds Source Specific Multicast (SSM)
What three messages are used by IGMP hosts? Membership Report, Version 1 Membership Report, Leave Group
What two types of IGMP messages are used by routers? General Query and Group-Specific Query
Command to turn multicast routing on globally ip multicast-routing
Command to enable PIM on an interface ip pim [sparse-mode | dense-mode| sparse-dense-mode]
Command to verify IGMP operation on an interface show ip igmp interface
What is the PIM traffic forwarding concept? Multicast traffic radiates away from a source rather than to a destination
What are the two types of PIM trees? Source-Based Tree and Shared Tree
What does (S, G) mean? Source-Based Tree where 'S' denotes class A,B, or C source IP address and 'G' denotes the multicast group address
What does (*, G) mean? Shared Tree where '*' denotes any source and 'G' denotes multicast group address
What are the three modes of PIM? Dense Mode, Sparse Mode, and Sparse-Dense Mode
How often does PIM DM flood and prune? Every 3 minutes
Which PIM mode has an explicit join approach? PIM Sparse Mode
What is a negative effect of PIM DM? Requires a lot of CPU overhead
What is a negative effect of PIM SM? May have increased delay
What is necessary when multiple multicast routers are connect to a multi-access network? A designated router
How is the multicast Designated Router elected? Highest IP address, Loopback, then other interfaces
What is the function of the multicast Designated Router? To send Join and Prune message to the RP
Name the technology that is a variation on the PIM-SM mode introduced to address issues for groups with a large number of sources Bidirectional PIM
How does Bidirectional PIM forward traffic? with (*,G) mechanisms only
What are the two functions of the multicast designated Forwarder for Bidirectional PIM? To prevent loops and forward appropriate multicast traffic upstream
How is the multicast Bidirectional PIM Designated Forwarder elected? Best Unicast route to the RP
What does reverse path forwarding mean? Moving traffic away from the source, instead of to a destination
How does the RPF Check work? It uses the unicast IP routing table to determine the upstream bath to the source and checks the interface that a multicast packet was received on
What is the primary loop prevention mechanism in multicast? RPF Check
What are the three ways to fix an RPF failure? Which one is the best? Run PIM DM over necessary links, Change the unicast routing table, or Create a Static Multicast Route
Command for creating static multicast route ip mroute (source ip) (network mask) (interface)
What two methods exist for automatically assigning the Rendezvous Point? Auto-RP and Bootstrap Router (BSR or PIM Version 2)
What is the term for routers that want to be RPs? Candidate RPs
What is the flaw with Auto-RP? It uses a dense multicast address to speak to clients to give them the RP (multicast) address (A problem in sparse mode only)
What multicast address is used by Candidate RPs in Auto-RP? 224.0.1.39
What multicast address is used by the mapping agent? 224.0.1.40
Command to declare candidacy for RP? ip pim send-rp-announce
Command to announce Mapping Agent? ip pim send-rp-discovery
What are the two fixes for the SM problem with Auto-RP? Statically assign the RP or use the 'ip pim auto rp listener' on each SM router
What technology allows multiple RPs to load share and provide hot backups for each other? Anycast RP
What protocol does Anycast RP rely on? Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)
What is the range of the IPv4 permanent multicast group? 224.0.0.0 - 224.0.1.255
What range of the IPv4 permanent multicast group is not routed? 224.0.0.0 - 224.0.0.255
What range of the IPv4 permanent multicast group is routed? 224.0.1.0 - 224.0.1.255
What is the IPv4 Source-Specific Multicast Range? 232.0.0.0 - 232.255.255.255
What is a IPv4 multicast transient address? What is its range? A transient address must be shared by all users of the internet. They are all remaining multicast addresses that aren't reserved.
What are the three rules for mapping an IPv4 multicast address to a MAC address? Start with hex 01005e. Followed by binary zero. Followed by last 23 bits of IP address
What are the three multicast distribution management protocols? CGMP, IGMP, RGMP
What IP protocol number does IGMP datagram messages use? 2
What is the IP TTL set to in IGMP messages? 1
What is the default version of IGMP? Version 2
IGMP version 2 is automatically enabled when _____ and _____ are configured. multicast routing, PIM
What are the four fields of an IGMP Version 2 message? Type, Maximum Response Time, Checksum, Group Address
What are the four different messages that can be in the IGMP 'type' field? Membership Query, Version 1 Membership Report, Version 2 Membership Report Leave Group
The IGMP maximum response time is only included in ______ messages. query
How is the IGMP version 2 maximum response time measured?
What is the default IGMP version maximum response time value? What is the range? 100, 1-255
What multicast address does IGMP version 3 use as a destination? 224.0.0.22
When does a IGMP host send an unsolicited Host Membership Report? When the host first comes online or wants to join the group
In IGMP version 2, What does the router do when it receives a leave group message from a host? Sends a group-specific query
What two values does an IGMP version 2 router use to determine if there are still listeners? What are their default values? Last Member Query Count - 2, Last Member Query Interval - 1 second
How often are general queries sent by default in IGMP version 2? Every 60 seconds
How does report suppression work in IGMP version 2 when hosts receive a general or group-specific query? They start a random timer anywhere between 0 and the configured maximum response time. They will send their membership report at the end of that timer only if they have not heard another host's report
How does the IGMP version 2 Querier election work? Routers send their general query messages to 224.0.0.1. Lowest address wins.
How do IGMP routers determine when an elected querier is dead? 2 missed query intervals plus 1/2 query response interval = dead time. If no queries within dead time, new election will take place. Default query interval is 125 seconds. Default query response interval is 10 seconds.
What layer does CGMP operate at? Layer 2
In CGMP, only _____ produce messages. routers
In CGMP, only _____ listen to messages. switches
What is the destination MAC address used for CGMP messages 0100.0cdd.dddd
What addresses are included in CGMP messages? Group Destination Address (GDA) and Unicast Source Address (USA)
How often does a router send a CGMP message? Every 60 seconds
When a router sends a leave message in CGMP for a group, what is the GDA and USA set to? Group address, zero
When a router wants the switch to release the CGMP router port, what is the GDA and USA set to in that leave message? Zero, Router MAC
What are GDA and USA values when the command 'clear ip cgmp' is given on a router? Zero, Zero
In CGMP, what does a router do when it receives an IGMP message from a host? It creates a CGMP message with USA and GDA set and sends it to the CGMP well-known MAC address
How does a switch with IGMP Snooping determine which ports have routers connected to them? Switch listens to routing protocol messages from well-known router MAC addresses. When it hears them, those ports are added to GDA list for that VLAN.
What three things does a IGMP Snooping switch do when it receives an IGMP report? CPU looks at the GDA, creates CAM table entry, and adds it to the port to the entry
What is the default IGMP snooping Last Member query interval? 1000 seconds
Which method is less efficient, IGMP Snooping or CGMP? IGMP Snooping
What address is used for all RGMP messages sent to? 224.0.0.25
Since RGMP does not work with CGMP, when one is _____ the other is _____.
How often are RGMP Hello messages sent? Every 30 seconds
What does a switch do when it receives an RGMP hello message? Stop forwarding all multicast traffic on that port
How does a router indicate that it wants to receive multicast traffic for a group? Join G message, G is the multicast group
How does a router indicate that it wants to stop receiving multicast traffic for a group? Leave G message, G is the multicast group
When a switch receives an RGMP Bye message, what action does it take? Forwards all multicast traffic on that port
What is the default version of PIM? Version 2
What type of messages does PIM Version 1 use for adjacencies? Query Messages
What IP protocol number does PIM Version 1 use? What multicast destination? 2, 224.0.0.2
What is the hello time and dead time of PIM version 2? 30 seconds, Dead timer is 3 times hello
What IP protocol and destination address does PIM Version 2 use? IP protocol 103, 224.0.0.13
Where does PIM Version 3 have to be configured? Only on edge routers
Aside from not having any devices interested, why would a PIM Dense mode router prune? Receiving packets on non-RPF interface
What does a PIM Register message contain? Multicast packets encapsulated in Unicast register header
When the RP replies, what does it send to the source router in response to a Register message? Register Stop message
What does the source router do once it receives a Register Stop message from RP? Set a 1 minute timer before it sends again
5 seconds before Register Stop timer expires on source router, what does it send to the RP? Register message with Null-Register bit set (no encapsulated packets)
What PIM version 2 message is used to form adjacencies? Hello
What PIM version 2 message is used before timer expiration to keep the pruned state? State Refresh
What PIM version 2 message is used to request traffic that was previously pruned? Graft
What PIM version 2 message is sent in response to a Graft message? Graft Acknowledgment
What PIM version 2 message is used for adding and removing branches to the PIM tree? Join/Prune Message
Once prune messages are sent in PIM version 2, how long does the receiving router wait for Prune Override messages? 3 seconds
What PIM version 2 message is used to determine who will be the multicast forwarder on a multi-access segment? Assert
What three things are checked to determine which router will become the designated forwarded on a multi-access segment in PIM version 2? Lowest administrative distance to the source, lowest routing protocol metric to the source, highest IP address]
Once (*, G) entries have been made, when does shortest path switchover take place by default As soon as the router receives its first multicast packet
How is the PIM version 2 value for spt-threshold measured? kbps
What does an 'R' mean in the multicast routing table? (S,G) entry is pointing toward the RP
What does an 'F' mean in the multicast routing table? Software is registering for a multicast source
What does an 'T' mean in the multicast routing table? Packets received on shortest-path source tree
When is a PIM Designated Router elected? Only in when IGMPv1 is used
What does a source router do in Bidirectional PIM instead of using register messages? Send traffic toward the RP
What are the two options of multicast scoping? TTL and Administrative Scoping
What is the default TTL value on all Cisco interfaces? 0
What are the other two multicast protocols besides PIM? DVMRP and MOSPF
What is the multicast source address in PIM dense mode? Actual source address of multicast packets
What is the multicast source address in PIM sparse mode? RP
How often are Auto-RP Candidate messages sent? Every minute
How does the Auto-RP mapping agent determine which router will be the RP for a multicast group? Highest IP address
What happens to the traffic that began before the router learned of a RP? Traffic still uses dense-mode rules
How is a BSR router different from an Auto-RP Mapping agent? BSR router sends all group-to-RP mapping information so PIM routers can select their own RP
What destination does BSR use to flood messages out all non-RPF interfaces? 224.0.0.13
If there are multiple BSR routers, which one becomes active? Highest IP address
How does Anycast's MSDP work? Peers are statically configured and then share all known multicast source information with each other
How often are MSDP messages sent? Every 60 seconds
Created by: ajballer15