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CIT226 Ch 1 - Intro

Ch 1 - Intro to Win Server 2008

QuestionAnswer
Active Directory A central database of computers, users, shared printers, shared folders, other network resources, and resource groupings that is used to manage a network and enable users to quickly find a particular resource.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) A protocol in the TCP/IP suite that enables a sending station to determine the MAC or physical address of another station on a network.
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) Windows Server 2008 supports Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) to automatically configure the TCP/IP settings for a computer. The computer assigns itself an IP address in the range of 169.254.0.1–169.254.255.254, if a DHCP server is not available.
broadcast A message sent to all computers on a network (but usually blocked to other networks by a router).
client A computer that accesses resources on another computer via a network or direct cable connection.
clustering The ability to increase the access to server resources and provide fail-safe services by linking two or more discrete computer systems so they appear to function as though they are one.
cmdlet A command-line tool available in Windows PowerShell. See Windows PowerShell.
connectionless communication Also called a connectionless service, a communication service that provides no checks (or minimal checks) to make sure that data accurately reaches the destination node.
connection-oriented communication Also called a connection-oriented service, provides several ways to ensure that data is successfully received at the destination, such as requiring an acknowledgement of receipt and using a checksum to make sure the packet or frame contents are accurate.
default gateway The IP address of the router that has a connection to other networks. The default gateway address is used when the host computer you are trying to contact exists on another network.
domain A grouping of resource objects—for example, servers, —to enable easier centralized management of these objects.
Domain Name System (DNS) Also called Domain Name Service, a TCP/IP application protocol that enables a DNS server to resolve (translate) domain and computer names to IP addresses, or IP addresses to domain and computer names.
dotted decimal notation An addressing technique that uses four octets, such as 10000110.11011110.01100101.00000101, converted to decimal (e.g., 134.222.101.5) to differentiate individual servers, workstations, and other network devices.
dynamic addressing An IP address that is automatically assigned to a client from a general pool of available addresses and that might be assigned each time the client is started, or it might be assigned for a period of days, weeks, months, or longer.
Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS) A form of DNS that enables client computers to update DNS registration information so that this does not have to be done manually. DDNS is often used with DHCP servers to automatically register IP addresses on a DNS server.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) A network protocol that provides a way for a server to automatically assign an IP address to a workstation on its network.
fault tolerant memory sync Enables memory to resynchronize after transient memory problems so there is no interruption to current computing activities.
frame A unit of data that is transmitted on a network that contains control and address information, but not routing information.
hot-add memory Memory that can be added without shutting down the computer or operating system.
hot-add processor The ability to add a processor to an empty processor slot on a multiprocessor system while the system is running.
hot-replace processor The ability to replace a processor in an SMP system without taking the system down.
Hyper-V Virtualization software developed by Microsoft that can be included with most versions of Windows Server 2008. See virtualization.
Internet Information Services (IIS) A Microsoft Windows Server component that provides Internet, Web, FTP, mail, and other services to make the server into a full-featured Web server.
Internet Protocol (IP) The Internet layer protocol responsible for addressing packets so that they are delivered on the local network or across routers to other networks or subnets.
Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) The most commonly used version of IP, which has been in use for many years. IPv4 has a limitation in that it was not designed to anticipate the vast numbers of networks and network users currently in existence.
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) The newest version of IP that is designed for enhanced security and that can handle the addressing needs of growing networks.
IP address A logical address assigned to each host on an IP network. It is used to identify a specific host on a specific network.
kernel An essential set of programs and computer code that allows a computer operating system to control processor, disk, memory, and other functions central to its basic operation.
local area network (LAN) A network of computers in relatively close proximity, such as on the same floor or in the same building.
media access control (MAC) address Also called a physical or device address, the hexadecimal number permanently assigned to a network interface, and used by the MAC sublayer (a communications sublayer for controlling how computers share communications on the same network).
multicast A single message is sent from one location and received at several different locations that are subscribed to receive that message.
multitasking The capability of a computer to run two or more programs at the same time.
multithreading Running several program processes or parts (threads) at the same time.
NetBIOS name A name or identifier used in older Windows systems to uniquely identify a computer.
network A communications system that enables computer users to share computer equipment, software, and data, voice, and video transmissions.
Network Access Protection (NAP) A collection of security protection features that monitor and manage a server and its clients so that access to network and server resources is carefully controlled to match security policies.
Network Address Translation (NAT) NAT translates IP addresses on an local network so that the actual IP addresses cannot be determined on the Internet, because the address seen on the Internet is a decoy address used from a pool of decoy addresses.
network interface card (NIC) An adaptor board or device to connect a workstation, server, or other network device to a network medium. The connection can be wired or wireless.
packet A unit of data transmitted on a network that contains control and address information as well as routing information.
peer-to-peer networking A network on which any computer can communicate with other networked computers on an equal or peer basis without going through an intermediary, such as a server or host.
preemptive multitasking Running two or more programs simultaneously so that each program runs in an area of memory separate from areas used by other programs.
privileged mode A protected memory space allocated for the Windows Server 2008 kernel that cannot be directly accessed by software applications.
process A computer program or portion of a program that is currently running. One large program might start several smaller programs or processes.
protocol A strictly defined set of rules for communication across a network that specifies how networked data is formatted for transmission, how it is transmitted, and how it is interpreted at the receiving end.
Registry A database used to store information about the configuration, program setup, devices, drivers, and other data important to the setup of Windows operating systems, such as Windows Server 2008.
router A device that connects networks, is able to read IP addresses, and can route or forward packets of data to designated networks.
script A file of shell commands that are run as a unit within the shell. interprets the commands to the operating system one line at a time. Usually to run the contents of a script, the name of that script must be entered at the command line.
server A single computer that provides extensive multiuser access to network resources.
server-based networking A model in which access to the network and resources, and the management of resources, is accomplished through one or more servers.
Server Manager A comprehensive server management tool offered through Windows Server 2008.
shell A command-line environment, also called a command interpreter, that enables communication with an operating system. Commands that are run within a shell are typically specific to that shell
static addressing An IP address that is assigned to a client and remains in use until it is manually changed.
subnet mask Used to distinguish between the network part and the host part of the IP address and to enable networks to be divided into subnets.
Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications (SUA) A set of services that can be installed in Windows Sever 2008 to create a UNIX-like environment for UNIX and Linux clients.
symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) computer A computer that uses more than one processor.
total cost of ownership (TCO) The cost of installing and maintaining computers and equipment on a network, which includes hardware, software, maintenance, and support costs.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) This transport protocol, which is part of the TCP/IP suite, establishes communication sessions between networked software application processes and provides for reliable end-to-end delivery of data by controlling data flow.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) The default protocol suite installed with Windows Server 2008 that enables network communication.
unicast A message that goes from one single computer to another single computer.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) A connectionless protocol that can be used with IP, instead of TCP.
virtualization Software that enables one computer to run two or more operating systems that are live at the same time and in which one application running in one operating system does not interfere with an application running in a different operating system.
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) A Windows Server service that enables the server to convert NetBIOS computer names to IP addresses for network and Internet communications.
Windows PowerShell A Windows command-line interface that offers scripting capabilities as well.
workgroup As used in Microsoft networks, a number of users who share drive and printer resources in an independent peer-to-peer relationship.
workstation A computer that has its own central processing unit (CPU) and can be used as a stand-alone or network computer for word processing, spreadsheet creation, or other software applications.
Created by: Leisac